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PREFACE.. IN this volume the aim of the Author, who has I himself served an apprenticeship to the trade of Watchmaking, and worked at the watchmakers bench for the best years of his life, is to give in plain language practical directions for carrying out the various operations involved in Repairing and Cleaning Watches. He has attempted to cover the whole ground of Watch Repairing, from the simplest operations to the most complex and difficult and it is hoped that the book will prove of service alike to the workman, the apprentice, and the arnateur. To the first-mentioned, the chapters on Springing and Adjusting and on Complicated Watches are mofe particularly addressed. These chapters, in particular, contain informatlon which it is believed cannot be found elsewhere, and will, the Autlior feels assured, be welcome even to those who are aiready adepts in the art of Watch . Repairing. The illustrations are a special feature, being all original and the Author having tried to avoid the tendency which so many technical books have of degenerating into mere catalogues of tools and appliances, he may confidently say of the present work that it at least has the merit of being fresh from cover to cover. F. J GARRARD CONTENTS. CHAPTER I .-INTRODUCTION, PAGES Description of a Watch Movement-Motive Power-The Train --Escapement and Balance-Motion Work. Figs. 1-5 . 1-7 CHAPTER 11.-THE MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF WATCHES. Steel, SoRening, Hardening, Tempering-Brass, Softening, Hardening, Tempering-Gold-Silver - German Silver- Platinum - Palladium - Aluminium Bronze - Invar-Rcd- stuff - Diamantine -Diamond Powder -Oilstone Dust- Emery-Water-of-Ayr Stone-Chalk-Benzine-Petrol-Oil -Methylated Spirit - Turpentine - Acids-Mercury-Peg- wood-Pith-Tissue-paper-Shellac . . . . . 8-18 CHAPTER 111.-WORKSHOP, TOOLS, G Heating the Workshop - Light - Work-board -Tools - Eyeglasses. Figs. 6-26 . . L 19-29 CHAPTER 1V.-THE USE OF TOOLS Flat Filing-Pin Filing-The Use of Files-Drilling-Broaching -Cutting Screw Threads. Figs. 27-31 . . . 30-33 CONTENTS. CHAPTER V.-TURNING. PAGE3 Using the Turns-Gravers-Methods of Cutting-Turning for Practice-The Watch Lathe-Its Appliances and Chucks- Methods cff Driving. Figs. 32-53 . . . 36-47 CHAPTER V1.-MAKING SMALL TOOLS. Drills - Taps - Punches - Screwdrivers - Soft Soldering - Countersinks-Chamfering Tools-Joint Pusher-Oiler- Blueing Slip - Hard Soldering - Brass Tweezers. Figs. 54-61. . . CHAPTER VI1,-CLEANING WATCHES. . 453 Why Watches want Cleaning-Key-wind Geneva Watches- , Taking to Pieces-Cleaning-Putting together-Endshakes Oiling-Keyless Watches-Taking out of Cases-English Watches-Verge Watches-English Cylinder and Duplex Watches-Pocket Chronometers-English Keyless Watches -American Keyless Watches-General Remarks on Cleaning Watches. Figs. 62-71 . . . 54-69 CHAPTER VII1.-BARRELS, FUSEES, MAIN- SPRINGS, AND CHAINS. Broken Mainsprings - Barrels, Repairing - New Barrels - Mending Chains - Fusee Clickwork - Stopwork - Safety Pinions-Going-barrel Clickwork. Figs. 72-86 . . 70-81 CHAPTER 1X.-DEPTHS, TRAIN WHEELS, C. Depths-Correcting Bad Depths-Worn Pivots-Polishing Pivots -Turning Pinions - Turning Pivots - Cement Chucks - Bushing Pivot Holes-Fitting New Wheel Teeth-New Pivots - Jewel Holes - Jewelling - Frames, Screws, c Figs.87-119 . . . . 82-99 CHAPTER X.-ESCAPEMENTS...