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Psychological research can provide constructive explanations of key problems in the criminal justice system--and can help generate solutions. This state-of-the-art text dissects the psychological processes associated with fundamental legal questions: Is a suspect lying? Will an incarcerated individual be dangerous in the future? Is an eyewitness accurate? How can false memories be implanted? How do juries, experts, forensic examiners, and judges make decisions, and how can racial and other forms of bias be minimized? Chapters offer up-to-date reviews of relevant theory, experimental methods, and empirical findings. Specific recommendations are made for improving the quality of evidence and preserving the integrity of investigative and legal proceedings.
The jury is often hailed as one of the most important symbols of American democracy. Yet much has changed since the Sixth Amendment in 1791 first guaranteed all citizens the right to a jury trial in criminal prosecutions. Experts now have a much more nuanced understanding of the psychological implications of being a juror, and advances in technology and neuroscience make the work of rendering a decision in a criminal trial more complicated than ever before. Criminal Juries in the 21st Century explores the increasingly wide gulf between criminal trial law, procedures, and policy, and what scientific findings have revealed about the human experience of serving as a juror. Readers will contemplate myriad legal issues that arise when jurors decide criminal cases as well as cutting-edge psychological research that can be used to not only understand the performance and experience of the contemporary criminal jury, but also to improve it. Chapter authors grapple with a number of key issues at the intersection of psychology and law, guiding readers to consider everything from the factors that influence the initial selection of the jury to how jurors cope with and reflect on their service after the trial ends. Together the chapters provide a unique view of criminal juries with the goal of increasing awareness of a broad range of current issues in great need of theoretical, empirical, and legal attention. Criminal Juries in the 21st Century will identify how social science research can inform law and policy relevant to improving justice within the jury system, and is an essential resource for those who directly study jury decision making as well as social scientists generally, attorneys, judges, students, and even future jurors.
Costanzo and Krauss show students how psychological science can be used to enhance the gathering of evidence, improve legal decision making, reduce crime, and promote justice. With the integration of fascinating real trials, cases and other examples of the legal system in action, the authors illustrate how research and theory can deepen our understanding of suspects, criminals, police officers, victims, lawyers, witnesses, judges, and jurors. Costanzo and Krauss accessibly illustrate the relevance of key research findings in social, cognitive, clinical, and developmental psychology to virtually every aspect of the legal system psychologists have studied
Grounded in the latest clinical and developmental knowledge, this book brings together leading authorities to examine the critical issues that arise when children and adolescents become involved in the justice system. Chapters explore young people’s capacities, competencies, and special vulnerabilities as victims, witnesses, and defendants. Key topics include the reliability of children’s abuse disclosures, eyewitness testimony, interviews, and confessions; the evolving role of the expert witness; the psychological impact of trauma and of legal involvement; factors that shape jurors’ perceptions of children; and what works in rehabilitating juvenile offenders. Policies and practices that are not supported by science are identified, and approaches to improving them are discussed.
Beyond Common Sense addresses the many important and controversial issues that arise from the use of psychological and social science in the courtroom. Each chapter identifies areas of scientific agreement and disagreement, and discusses how psychological science advances our understanding of human behavior beyond common sense. Features original chapters written by some of the leading experts in the field of psychology and law including Elizabeth Loftus, Saul Kassin, Faye Crosby, Alice Eagly, Gary Wells, Louise Fitzgerald, Craig Anderson, and Phoebe Ellsworth The 14 issues addressed include eyewitness identification, gender stereotypes, repressed memories, Affirmative Action and the death penalty Commentaries written by leading social science and law scholars discuss key legal and scientific themes that emerge from the science chapters and illustrate how psychological science is or can be used in the courts
This rigorous yet reader-friendly book reviews the state of the science on a broad range of psychological issues commonly encountered in the forensic context. The goal is to help professionals and students differentiate between supported and unsupported psychological techniques--and steer clear of those that may be misleading or legally inadmissible. Leading contributors focus on controversial issues surrounding recovered memories, projective techniques, lie detection, child witnesses, offender rehabilitation, psychopathy, violence risk assessment, and more. With a focus on real-world legal situations, the book offers guidelines for presenting scientific evidence accurately and effectively in courtroom testimony and written reports.
Psychological science now reveals much about the law's response to crime. This is the first text to bridge both fields as it presents psychological research and theory relevant to each phase of criminal justice processes. The materials are divided into three parts that follow a comprehensive introduction. The introduction analyses the major legal themes and values that guide criminal justice processes and points to the many psychological issues they raise. Part I examines how the legal system investigates and apprehends criminal suspects. Topics range from the identification, searching and seizing to the questioning of suspects. Part II focuses on how the legal system establishes guilt. To do so, it centres on the process of bargaining and pleading cases, assembling juries, providing expert witnesses, and considering defendants' mental states. Part III focuses on the disposition of cases. Namely, that part highlights the process of sentencing defendants, predicting criminal tendencies, treating and controlling offenders, and determining eligibility for such extreme punishments as the death penalty. The format seeks to give readers a feeling for the entire criminal justice process and for the role psychological science has and can play in it.
From the initial investigation of a crime to the sentencing of an offender, a wide range of practices within the criminal justice system draw on psychological knowledge. In this book, prominent cognitive and social psychology researchers analyze the processes involved in such tasks as interviewing witnesses, detecting deception, and eliciting eyewitness reports and identification from adults and children. Also analyzed are factors that influence decision making by jurors and judges, including the persuasive strategies used by lawyers.Throughout, findings from experimental research are translated into clear recommendations for improving the quality of evidence and the fairness of investigative and legal proceedings. The book also addresses salient methodological questions and identifies key directions for future investigation.
Despite notable contributions in eyewitness identification and jury selection, most legal research done by psychologists has had a minimal impact upon law and public policy in the United States. In fact, much psycholegal research is marred by systemic flaws. In this carefully-reasoned and compelling text, Bruce D. Sales and Daniel A. Krauss explain how psychologists have failed to understand the law and the context in which it operates. Even subtle misunderstandings about the nature of courtroom testimony or the application of different legal statutes across different jurisdictions, they argue, can produce research that fails to examine real world phenomena. To combat this, the authors present a roadmap for how criminal justice and forensic researchers can use research to describe, explain, predict, and provide solutions for legal situations that can have a real impact on judges, juries, and the legal profession at large. Throughout, they demonstrate a dedication to the craft of scientific research that is sure to inspire a new and improved Psychology of Law for the twenty-first century.
"This book explores tort law through the lens of psychological science. Drawing on a wealth of psychological research and their own experiences teaching and researching tort law, the authors examine the psychological assumptions that underlie doctrinal rules. They explore how tort law influences the behavior and decision making of potential plaintiffs and defendants, examining how doctors and patients, drivers, manufacturers and purchasers of products, property owners, and others make decisions against the backdrop of tort law. They show how the judges and jurors who decide tort claims are influenced by psychological phenomena in deciding cases. And they reveal how plaintiffs, defendants, and their attorneys resolve tort disputes in the shadow of tort law."--Page 4 of cover.
This book is about explanation and experiment in a science of human action. It aims to provide a philosophy of social psychological science that both embodies sound principles of scientific reasoning and is sensitive to the social psychological dimensions of human action. The guiding principle of this book is the belief that the logical forms of causal explanation and experimental evaluation can be ef fectively employed in the scientific analysis of meaningful human action. According to most accounts, social psychological science has been in a more or less constant state of crisis for the past decades, having been subject to a host of criticisms on moral, political, methodological, and philosophical grounds. Many of these critiques have been directed against the still dominant conception of social psychological enquiry as a causal and objective scientific discipline that is closely analogous to (if not to be identified as a branch ot) the natural sciences. Thus, many of the most vigorous debates have concerned the nature of explanation and the utility of experimentation in a social psychological discipline.
Written by authors with extensive experience in the field and in the classroom, Psychology and Law: Research and Practice, Second Edition, offers the definitive perspective on the practical application of psychological research to the law. Curt R. Bartol and Anne M. Bartol emphasize the various roles psychologists and other mental health professionals play in criminal and civil legal matters. Topics such as family law, mental health evaluations, police interrogation, jury selection and decision making, involuntary civil commitment, and various civil capacities are included. The authors also emphasize the major contributions psychological research has made to the law and encourage critical analysis through examples of court cases, high-profile current events, and research. This comprehensive book examines complex material in detail and explains it in an easy-to-read way. New to the Second Edition: The new edition has been significantly reorganized to more closely align with the progression through the court system. A new chapter on children, adolescents, and criminal law (Chapter 8) provides you with information on adjudicative competence, comprehension of constitutional rights, and eyewitness identification and courtroom testimony. New feature boxes include case studies, research projects, and contemporary topics with discussion questions for classroom debate. Additional court cases and statutes have been integrated into chapters to emphasize the important role psychology plays in the legal process. The content is applied to real cases such as the Masterpiece Cakeshop case and the Dassey confession (comprehending Miranda). Over 300 recent research findings on topics related to psychology and law highlight cutting-edge research studies that help you understand what research does and prompt you to discuss the methodology and results. New pedagogical tables clearly illustrate complex information around ethical issues, APA amicus briefs, strengths and weaknesses of simulation studies, insanity standards within the states, effects experienced by survivors of traumatic incidents, and more. Increased coverage of contemporary issues encourage critical thinking and active learning by promoting discussions around current issues such as telepsychology, neuropsychology, adversarial allegiance, and actuarial instruments used in bail and sentence decision-making. ?
The present volume consists of up-to-date review articles on topics relevant to psychology and law, and will be of current interest to the field. Notably, the majority of these topics are currently attracting a great deal of research and public policy attention in the U.S. and elsewhere, as evidenced by programs at the American Psychology-Law Society and related conferences. Topics for the present volume include: attitudes toward the police (Cole et al.), alibis (Charman et al.), hate crimes based on gender and sexual orientation (Plumm & Leighton), the role of gender at trial (Livingston et al.), neuroimages in court (Glen), intimate partner violence (Mauer & Reppucci), post-identification feedback (Douglass & Smalarz) and individual differences in eyewitness identification (Snowden & Bornstein), veterans’ wellbeing (Berthelot & Prager), and plea bargaining (Levett).
Praise for Forensic Psychology and Law "In Forensic Psychology and Law, three internationally known experts provide exceptional coverage of a wide array of topics that address both the clinical applications of forensic psychology and the role of psychological science in understanding and evaluating legal assumptions and processes." —Norman Poythress, PhD, Research Director and Professor, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Dept. of Mental Health Law and Policy "Forensic Psychology and Law is a major contribution to the teaching of law and psychology. Roesch, Zapf, and Hart offer a timely, comprehensive, and succinct overview of the field that will offer widespread appeal to those interested in this vibrant and growing area. Outstanding." —Kirk Heilbrun, PhD, Professor and Head, Department of Psychology, Drexel University "In this volume, three noted experts have managed to capture the basic elements of forensic psychology. It is clearly written, well organized, and provides real world examples to hold the interest of any reader. While clarifying complex issues, the authors also present a very balanced discussion of a number of the most hotly debated topics." —Mary Alice Conroy, PhD, ABPP, Psychological Services Center, Sam Houston State University A Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Discussion of the Interface Between Forensic Psychology and Law Forensic Psychology and Law covers the latest theory, research, and practice in the field and provides thought-provoking discussion of topics with chapters on: Forensic assessment in criminal and civil domains Eyewitness identification Police investigations, interrogations, and confessions Correctional psychology Psychology, law, and public policy Ethics and professional issues
Offering carefully curated articles from the European Association of Psychology and Law (EAPL), this book features chapters from a truly international group of scholars. This text is the first of its kind to offer insights into current developments in psychology and law in Russia. The field of psychology and law has a very long and strong tradition in Russia, but very little is known, as Russian scholars rarely publish their works in English. The volume also contains state-of-the-art chapters on topics at the very core of psychology and law, including offender profiling, lie detection, crime linking, false memories, and witness interviewing. Features Provides rare insight into Russian history of forensic and criminal psychology Covers core topics in the discipline Offers international scope from a diverse array of contributors Psychology and Law in Europe: When West Meets East is a text of interest for students of psychology, law, or criminal justice, as well as scholars and practitioners in the field. This text offers a window into global advances in psychology and law.
Evidence law is meant to facilitate trials that are fair, accurate, and efficient, and that encourage and protect important societal values and relationships. In pursuit of these often-conflicting goals, common law judges and modern drafting committees have had to perform as amateur applied psychologists. Their task has required them to employ what they think they know about the ability and motivations of witnesses to perceive, store, and retrieve information; about the effects of the litigation process on testimony and other evidence; and about our capacity to comprehend and evaluate evidence. These are the same phenomena that cognitive and social psychologists systematically study. The rules of evidence have evolved to restrain lawyers from using the most robust weapons of influence, and to direct judges to exclude certain categories of information, limit it, or instruct juries on how to think about it. Evidence law regulates the form of questions lawyers may ask, filters expert testimony, requires witnesses to take oaths, and aims to give lawyers and factfinders the tools they need to assess witnesses’ reliability. But without a thorough grounding in psychology, is the “common sense” of the rulemakers as they create these rules always, or even usually, correct? And when it is not, how can the rules be fixed? Addressed to those in both law and psychology, The Psychological Foundations of Evidence Law draws on the best current psychological research-based knowledge to identify and evaluate the choices implicit in the rules of evidence, and to suggest alternatives that psychology reveals as better for accomplishing the law’s goals.
While some books about police psychology contain a chapter on the fitness-for-duty question, this is the first comprehensive publication focused exclusively on psychological fitness-for-duty evaluations (FFDEs) for law enforcement personnel. This handbook is ideal for professionals and for coursework designed to prepare individuals for careers as police or municipal officials, psychologists, students, behavioral science specialists, human rights advocates, and attorneys. A helpful glossary makes the book even more useful for students and those who do not have extensive academic or formal training in psychology or public administration. A Handbook for Psychological Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations in Law Enforcement describes in detail the mechanics of setting up a fitness-for-duty methodology and examines the effectiveness of FFDEs in law enforcement. You’ll find clear instructions for developing a FFDE system from the law enforcement executive’s viewpoint (valuable for attorneys, police psychologists, and civil service board members as well), and an extensive bibliography with particular emphasis on laws and cases that provide guidance to psychological and law enforcement professionals. Several appendices provide examples of documentation that can be used in the evaluation process. This book brings you reliable information on: legal precedents, with a review of legal cases (in language appropriate for law enforcement executives and psychologists) the interaction between police culture, psychological assessment, and therapy federal laws that impact FFDEs, including the HIPAA, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Family Medical Leave Act and the Fair Credit Reporting Act case law and FFDEs, with emphasis on civil rights laws, labor issues, professional ethical dilemmas, and the psychologist as a potential expert witness the proper uses—and the misuses—of the FFDE approach police departmental civil liability and the role that the FFDE plays in addressing legal risks In addition, this book contains a succinct review of psychological testing (psychometrics), and the technicalities of employing a professional psychologist to determine the fitness of commissioned officers. A Handbook for Psychological Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations in Law Enforcement proposes a model law that could be used to improve the utility and effectiveness of FFDEs, and presents a forward-looking discussion of FFDE issues that may become controversial in the near future.
The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law addresses the interface of psychology and law and draws from the related discipline of criminal justice. These two volumes represent an outstanding collection of entries describing a wide array of contemporary and historical psychology and law topics. With more than 400 entries, this comprehensive resource is perfect to fill the substantial gap in the holdings of academic, professional, and personal libraries on this topic.Key ThemesCriminal CompetenciesCriminal ResponsibilityDeath PenaltyEducation and Professional DevelopmentForensic Assessment in Civil and Criminal CasesJuvenile OffendersMental Health LawPolice and Investigative PsychologyPsychological and Forensic Assessment InstrumentsPsychology of Criminal BehaviorSentencing and IncarcerationSymptoms and Disorders Relevant to Forensic AssessmentTrial ProcessesViolence Risk AssessmentThe Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law allows individual students, scientists, and practitioners to keep abreast of the growing knowledge base outside their individual areas of expertise, making it a must-have resource for any academic library.
Race, Culture, Psychology, and Law is the only book to provide summaries and analyses of culturally competent psychological and social services encountered within the U.S. legal arena. The book is broad in scope and covers the knowledge and practice crucial in providing comprehensive services to ethnic, racial, and cultural minorities. Topics include the importance of race relations, psychological testing and evaluation, racial "profiling," disparities in death penalty conviction, immigration and domestic violence, asylum seekers, deportations and civil rights, juvenile justice, cross-cultural lawyering, and cultural competency in the administration of justice.

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