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Now ubiquitous in modern life, spatial data present great opportunities to transform many of the processes on which we base our everyday lives. However, not only do these data depend on the scale of measurement, but also handling these data (e.g., to make suitable maps) requires that we account for the scale of measurement explicitly. Scale in Spatial Information and Analysis describes the scales of measurement and scales of spatial variation that exist in the measured data. It provides you with a series of tools for handling spatial data while accounting for scale. The authors detail a systematic strategy for handling scale issues from geographic reality, through measurements, to resultant spatial data and their analyses. They also explore a process-pattern paradigm in approaching scale issues. This is well reflected, for example, in chapters dealing with terrain analysis, in which scale in terrain derivatives is described in relation to the processing involved in the derivation of specific terrain variables from elevation data, and area classes, which are viewed as driven by class-forming covariates. Lastly, this book provides coverage of some of the issues related to scale that are relatively under-represented in the literature, such as the effects of scale on information content in remotely sensed images, and the interaction between scale and uncertainty that is increasingly important for spatial information and analysis. By taking a rigorous, scientific approach to scale and its various meanings in relation to the geographic world, the book alleviates some of the frustration caused by dealing with issues of scale. While past research has led to an increasing number of journal articles and a few books dedicated to scale modeling and change of scale, this book helps you to develop coherent strategies for scale modeling, highlighting applicability for a variety of fields, from geomatic engineering and geoinformatics to environmental modeling.
The recent emergence and widespread use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) has prompted new interest in scale as a key component of these and other geographic information technologies. Techniques for dealing explicitly with scale are now available in GIS, but, until now, very little literature was available to consider and solve specific issues of scale. With a balanced mixture of concepts, practical examples, techniques, and theory, Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS is a guide for students and users of remote sensing and GIS who must deal with the issues raised by multiple temporal and spatial scales.
Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment Edited by PaulLongley and Michael Batty Digital data and information are usedincreasingly by academics, professionals, local authorities, andgovernment departments. Powerful new technologies, such asgeographic information systems (GIS), are being developed toanalyse such data, and GIS technologies are rapidly becoming partof the emergent world digital infrastructure. This book shows howcomputer methods of analysis and modelling, built around GIS, canbe used to identify ways in which our cities and regions might bebetter planned and understood. The contributors to this book areall actively involved in research using geographic informationsystems. This book will be valuable reading for: * Geographers, researchers, and regional analysts * Population theorists and regional economists with interests inlarge-scale demographic and employment data * Planners and policy-makers who wish to use GIS to improve theirdecision making * Business analysts who wish to explore markets using the mostrecent advances in digital spatial data technology * All those interested in geodemographics Paul Longley is Professor of Geography at the Department ofGeography, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Michael Batty isProfessor of Spatial Analysis and Planning at the UniversityCollege London. United Kingdom.
This volume collects the papers presented at the European Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT '93) held on the island of Elba, Italy, inSeptember 1993. Spatial information theory includes disciplinary topics and interdisciplinary issues dealing with the conceptualization and formalization of large-scale (geographic) space. It contributes towards a consistent theoretical basis for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Geographic information systems are widely used in administration,planning, and science in many different countries, and for a wide variety ofapplications. Research results which relevant for GIS are distributed between many disciplines and contacts between researchers have been limited. At the same time, the development of GIS has been hinderedby the lack of a sound theoretical base. This conference was intended to help remedies these problems.
COSIT,theseriesofConferencesonSpatialInformationTheory,hasbeenaround for more than ten years. Its hallmarks are a fruitful interdisciplinary dialogue between computational and human perspectives on spatio-temporal information and a thorough review process that selects the best papers while giving all - thors detailed feedback on how to develop their work. A clear pro?le of the COSIT community has emerged from the series of conference proceedings, all published as Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, and from the per- nent web site at http://www. cosit. info, containing links to the conference web sites and proceedings, a history and program of the series, an impact study, interviews with participants, and pictures. The proceedings of this sixth conference provide ample evidence that COSIT is healthy and maturing, while retaining its youth. Out of the 61 submissions, the program committee selected 26 papers for presentation, in discussions based on at least three double-blind reviews and one or more meta-review from PC members for each paper. Classical COSIT themes, such as spatial reasoning (about distances and directions, regions and shapes) or vagueness are being f- ther re?ned; topics like way?nding and landmarks are boosted by new synergies betweencognitiveandcomputationalapproaches;andthestudyofontologiesfor space and time, a subject since the ?rst COSIT, is gaining more depth.
Integrating Scale in Remote Sensing and GIS serves as the most comprehensive documentation of the scientific and methodological advances that have taken place in integrating scale and remote sensing data. This work addresses the invariants of scale, the ability to change scale, measures of the impact of scale, scale as a parameter in process models, and the implementation of multiscale approaches as methods and techniques for integrating multiple kinds of remote sensing data collected at varying spatial, temporal, and radiometric scales. Researchers, instructors, and students alike will benefit from a guide that has been pragmatically divided into four thematic groups: scale issues and multiple scaling; physical scale as applied to natural resources; urban scale; and human health/social scale. Teeming with insights that elucidate the significance of scale as a foundation for geographic analysis, this book is a vital resource to those seriously involved in the field of GIScience.
Six introduction perspectives. Environmental research: what we must do. The state of GIS for environmental problem-solving. A perspective on the state of environmental simulation modeling. The need for integration. The role of software venders in integrating GIS and environmental modeling. GIS for modelers. Cartographic modeling: the analytical capabilities of GIS. Understanding the scope of GIS: its relationship to environmental modeling. Data models and data quality: problems and prospects. Environmental simulation modeling. Atmosperic modeling. Atmospheric modeling and its spatial representation of land surface characteristics. An approach to bridge the gap between microscale land-surface processes and synoptic-scale meteorological conditions using atmospheric models and GIS: potential for applications in agriculture. Land surface data: global climate modeling requirements. Regional air quality and acid deposition modeling and the role for visualization. Hydrological modeling. GIS and hydrological modeling. Linkage of a GIS to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. Graphical innovations in surface innovations in surface water flow analysis. Land-surface-subsurface Process modeling. Biological/ecological systems modeling. Spatial models of ecological systems and processes: the role of GIS. Integrating a forest growth model with a Geographic Information System. Integrated modeling. From modeling to policy. Risk and hazard modeling. Role of modeling in policy. Spatial data. Spatial statistics. Geostatistics: ...
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT'97, held in Laurel Highlands, Pennsylvania, USA, in October 1997. The 31 revised full papers presented were carefully selected from a total of 66 submissions. Also included are seven posters. The volume is divided into sections on representations of change, structuring of space, boundaries and gradations, topological models of space, formal models of space, cognitive aspects of spatial acquisition, novel use of spatial information, wayfinding and map interpretation, representations of spatial concepts, new approaches to spatial information.
A guide for geographic analysts, modelers, software engineers, and GIS professionals, this book discusses agent-based modeling, dynamic feedback and simulation modeling, as well as links between models and GIS software. This collection also presents a state-of-the-art understanding of applications based on environmental, atmospheric, hydrological, urban, social, health, and economic models.
This book is intended for the GIS Science and Decision Science communities. It is primarily targeted at postgraduate students and practitioners in GIS and urban, regional and environmental planning as well as applied decision analysis. It is also suitable for those studying and working with spatial decision support systems. The main objectives of this book are to effectivley integrate Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) into Geographic Information Science (GIScience), to provide a comprehensive account of theories, methods, technologies and tools for tackling spatial decision problems and to demonstrate how the GIS-MCDA approaches can be used in a wide range of planning and management situations.
GIS (geographic information system) is a totally cool technology that has been called “geography on steroids.” GIS is what lets you see the schools in your neighborhood or tells you where the nearest McDonald’s is. GIS For Dummies tells you all about mapping terminology and digital mapping, how to locate geographic features and analyze patterns such as streets and waterways, and how to generate travel directions, customer location lists, and much more with GIS. Whether you’re in charge of creating GIS applications for your business or you simply love maps, you’ll find GIS For Dummies is packed with information. For example, you can: Learn all the hardware and software necessary to collect, analyze, and manipulate GIS data Explore the difference between 2D and 3D maps, create a map, or manage multiple maps Analyze patterns that appear in maps and interpret the results Measure distance in absolute, comparative, and functional ways Recognize how spatial factors relate to geographic data Discover how GIS is used in business, the military, city planning, emergency services, land management, and more Find out how GIS can help you find out where flooding may occur Determine what your organization needs, do appropriate analyses, and actually plan and design a GIS system You’ll find dozens of applications for GIS queries and analyses, and even learn to create animated GIS output. Whether your goal is to implement a GIS or just have fun, GIS For Dummies will get you there! Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
This is the first book of its kind – explicitly considering uncertainty and error analysis as an integral part of scaling. The book draws together a series of important case studies to provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the most recent concepts, theories and methods in scaling and uncertainty analysis. It includes case studies illustrating how scaling and uncertainty analysis are being conducted in ecology and environmental science.
From the reviews: "Bishop and Schroder (both, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha) have brought together an impressive group of practitioners in the relatively new application of geographic information science to mountain geomorphology. In doing so, they have produced valuable, first, overall coverage of a high-tech approach to mountain, three-dimensional research. More than 40 contributing authors discuss a wide range of related aspects.... The book is well bound and well produced; each chapter provides an extensive source of references. The numerous line drawings are clearly reproduced, although the mediocre quality of photographic reproduction limits the value of air photographs and satellite images. As is characteristic of many edited collections, there is some variation in chapter quality. Some of the writing is so dense that it requires minute concentration--one chapter, for instance, has 14 pages of references from a total of 43 pages. Nevertheless, this is a vital compendium for a rapidly expanding field of research. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (J. D. Ives, Choice, March 2005)
This book offers alternative definitions of spatial scale, presents approaches for exploring spatial scale, and makes use of a wide variety of case studies in the physical and social sciences to demonstrate key concepts. It consists of three integrated strands. The first is conceptual, outlining some definitions of spatial scale and debating the meaning and value of concepts of scale. The second strand outlines methods for exploration of spatial scale including standard measures of spatial autocorrelation, fractals, wavelets, multilevel models and geostatistical measures. The third and final strand demonstrates the application of these concepts and methods to real world case studies. --
Most environmental studies are based upon data collected at fine spatial scales plots, sediments, cores, etc.. Furthermore, temporal scales of these studies have been relatively short days, weeks, months and few studies have exceeded three years duration the typical funding cycle.; Despite this history, environmental scientists are now being called upon to extrapolate findings from "plot-level" studies to broader spatial scales and from short-term studies to longer temporal scales, up to decades for questions related to long-term processes such as global warming and the rise in sea level.; The complex questions being addressed internationally require that scientists take advantage of new technologies including remote sensing, geographic information systems GIS, and powerful climatic and environmental simulation models. As more environmental scientists begin to work at these broader spatial and temporal scales, and to utilize many of the newer technologies, they are recognising a whole new class of problems.; This book aims to address the most pertinent issues, and includes a comprehensive review of selected topics, case studies, and theoretical discussions, divided into seven sections each preceded by a brief introduction.
Geographical Information is defined as the collection of data on real virtual objects which have a fixed place above, on, in or beneath the surface of the earth. Geographical information involves all information on buildings, roads, pipelines, cabling, etc. as well as boundaries, air corridors, topography and postcode areas, the information can be administrative and geometric. Changes in social and economic interests have caused the emphasis to shift over the years. Virtual objects (areas, postcode areas) in particular have attracted more interest in recent years. This is closely related to the increased desirability of analysing and presenting policy information within certain spatial limits, in which the introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and systems like GIS has played a significant role. Geographical Information cannot be regarded as the informational side of one policy area. Geographical information is not only necessary for the layout and management of space, but also for such things as taxation, environmental policy, water management, maintenance and protection of pipeline systems and making maps. The volumes address the latest developments with respect to technological innovation, scientific progress and advanced professional application in the field of geographical information. In addition, articles dealing with the state of the art and coming innovations with respect to major fields of GI research and application are included. The books cover the following areas of specific interest topics with the current scope of geographical information research: geographical information technolgy; geographical information and environment; geographical information planning; geographical information in urban and regional government; geographical information inutilities, telecom and private enterprise; geographical information education and awareness; geographical information in Spain.
This book brings together a collection of invited interdisciplinary persp- tives on the recent topic of Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA). Its c- st tent is based on select papers from the 1 OBIA International Conference held in Salzburg in July 2006, and is enriched by several invited chapters. All submissions have passed through a blind peer-review process resulting in what we believe is a timely volume of the highest scientific, theoretical and technical standards. The concept of OBIA first gained widespread interest within the GIScience (Geographic Information Science) community circa 2000, with the advent of the first commercial software for what was then termed ‘obje- oriented image analysis’. However, it is widely agreed that OBIA builds on older segmentation, edge-detection and classification concepts that have been used in remote sensing image analysis for several decades. Nevert- less, its emergence has provided a new critical bridge to spatial concepts applied in multiscale landscape analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the synergy between image-objects and their radiometric char- teristics and analyses in Earth Observation data (EO).
Hugh P. Possingham Landscape-scale conservation planning is coming of age. In the last couple of decades, conservation practitioners, working at all levels of governance and all spatial scales, have embraced the CARE principles of conservation planning – Comprehensiveness, Adequacy, Representativeness, and Efficiency. Hundreds of papers have been written on this theme, and several different kinds of software program have been developed and used around the world, making conservation planning based on these principles global in its reach and influence. Does this mean that all the science of conservation planning is over – that the discovery phase has been replaced by an engineering phase as we move from defining the rules to implementing them in the landscape? This book and the continuing growth in the literature suggest that the answer to this question is most definitely ‘no. ’ All of applied conservation can be wrapped up into a single sentence: what should be done (the action), in what place, at what time, using what mechanism, and for what outcome (the objective). It all seems pretty simple – what, where, when, how and why. However stating a problem does not mean it is easy to solve.

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