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Since its inception, the theory of fuzzy sets has advanced in a variety of ways and in many disciplines. Applications of fuzzy technology can be found in artificial intelligence, computer science, control engineering, decision theory, expert systems, logic, management science, operations research, robotics, and others. Theoretical advances have been made in many directions. The primary goal of Fuzzy Set Theory - and its Applications, Fourth Edition is to provide a textbook for courses in fuzzy set theory, and a book that can be used as an introduction. To balance the character of a textbook with the dynamic nature of this research, many useful references have been added to develop a deeper understanding for the interested reader. Fuzzy Set Theory - and its Applications, Fourth Edition updates the research agenda with chapters on possibility theory, fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning, expert systems, fuzzy control, fuzzy data analysis, decision making and fuzzy set models in operations research. Chapters have been updated and extended exercises are included.
Set theory is a rich and beautiful subject whose fundamental concepts permeate virtually every branch of mathematics. One could say that set theory is a unifying theory for mathematics, since nearly all mathematical concepts and results can be formalized within set theory. This textbook is meant for an upper undergraduate course in set theory. In this text, the fundamentals of abstract sets, including relations, functions, the natural numbers, order, cardinality, transfinite recursion, the axiom of choice, ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers, are developed within the framework of axiomatic set theory. The reader will need to be comfortable reading and writing mathematical proofs. The proofs in this textbook are rigorous, clear, and complete, while remaining accessible to undergraduates who are new to upper-level mathematics. Exercises are included at the end of each section in a chapter, with useful suggestions for the more challenging exercises.
To-date computers are supposed to store and exploit knowledge. At least that is one of the aims of research fields such as Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems. However, the problem is to understand what knowledge means, to find ways of representing knowledge, and to specify automated machineries that can extract useful information from stored knowledge. Knowledge is something people have in their mind, and which they can express through natural language. Knowl edge is acquired not only from books, but also from observations made during experiments; in other words, from data. Changing data into knowledge is not a straightforward task. A set of data is generally disorganized, contains useless details, although it can be incomplete. Knowledge is just the opposite: organized (e.g. laying bare dependencies, or classifications), but expressed by means of a poorer language, i.e. pervaded by imprecision or even vagueness, and assuming a level of granularity. One may say that knowledge is summarized and organized data - at least the kind of knowledge that computers can store.
This undergraduate text develops its subject through observations of the physical world, covering finite sets, cardinal numbers, infinite cardinals, and ordinals. Includes exercises with answers. 1958 edition.
Pure Mathematics for Beginners Pure Mathematics for Beginners consists of a series of lessons in Logic, Set Theory, Abstract Algebra, Number Theory, Real Analysis, Topology, Complex Analysis, and Linear Algebra. The 16 lessons in this book cover basic through intermediate material from each of these 8 topics. In addition, all the proofwriting skills that are essential for advanced study in mathematics are covered and reviewed extensively. Pure Mathematics for Beginners is perfect for professors teaching an introductory college course in higher mathematics high school teachers working with advanced math students students wishing to see the type of mathematics they would be exposed to as a math major. The material in this pure math book includes: 16 lessons in 8 subject areas. A problem set after each lesson arranged by difficulty level. A complete solution guide is included as a downloadable PDF file. Pure Math Book Table Of Contents (Selected) Here's a selection from the table of contents: Introduction Lesson 1 - Logic: Statements and Truth Lesson 2 - Set Theory: Sets and Subsets Lesson 3 - Abstract Algebra: Semigroups, Monoids, and Groups Lesson 4 - Number Theory: Ring of Integers Lesson 5 - Real Analysis: The Complete Ordered Field of Reals Lesson 6 - Topology: The Topology of R Lesson 7 - Complex Analysis: The field of Complex Numbers Lesson 8 - Linear Algebra: Vector Spaces Lesson 9 - Logic: Logical Arguments Lesson 10 - Set Theory: Relations and Functions Lesson 11 - Abstract Algebra: Structures and Homomorphisms Lesson 12 - Number Theory: Primes, GCD, and LCM Lesson 13 - Real Analysis: Limits and Continuity Lesson 14 - Topology: Spaces and Homeomorphisms Lesson 15 - Complex Analysis: Complex Valued Functions Lesson 16 - Linear Algebra: Linear Transformations
This introduction to the theory of sets employs the discoveries of Cantor, Russell, Weierstrass, Zermelo, Bernstein, Dedekind, and others. It analyzes concepts and principles, offering numerous examples. Topics include the rudiments of set theory, arbitrary sets and their cardinal numbers, ordered sets and their order types, and well-ordered sets and their ordinal numbers. 1950 edition.
Advanced study focuses on finite groups and the idea of group actions. Chapters divided between normal and arithmetical structure of groups. 1978 edition.