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The New York Times bestseller that inspired the documentary Shanghai 1937: Where World War II Began on Public Television. At its height, the Battle of Shanghai involved nearly a million Chinese and Japanese soldiers while sucking in three million civilians as unwilling spectators—and often victims. It turned what had been a Japanese imperialist adventure in China into a general war between the two oldest and proudest civilizations of the Far East. Ultimately, it led to Pearl Harbor and to seven decades of tumultuous history in Asia. The Battle of Shanghai was a pivotal event that helped define and shape the modern world. In its sheer scale, the struggle for China’s largest city was a sinister forewarning of what was in store only a few years later in theaters around the world. It demonstrated how technology had given rise to new forms of warfare and had made old forms even more lethal. Amphibious landings, tank assaults, aerial dogfights, and—most important—urban combat all happened in Shanghai in 1937. It was a dress rehearsal for World War II—or, perhaps more correctly, it was the inaugural act in the war, the first major battle in the global conflict. Actors from a variety of nations were present in Shanghai during the three fateful autumn months when the battle raged. The rich cast included China’s ascetic Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his Japanese adversary, General Matsui Iwane, who wanted Asia to rise from disunity, but ultimately pushed the continent toward its deadliest conflict ever. Claire Chennault, later of “Flying Tiger” fame, was among the figures emerging in the course of the campaign, as was First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. In an ironic twist, Alexander von Falkenhausen, a stern German veteran of the Great War, abandoned his role as a mere advisor to the Chinese army and led it into battle against the Japanese invaders. Shanghai 1937 fills a gaping chasm in our understanding of the War of Resistance and the Second World War.
From 1931, China and Japan had been embroiled in a number of small-scale conflicts that had seen vast swathes of territory being occupied by the Japanese. On 7 July 1937, the Japanese engineered the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which led to the fall of Beijing and Tianjin and the start of a de facto state of war between the two countries. This force then moved south, landing an expeditionary force to take Shanghai and from there drive west to capture Nanjing. This fully illustrated book tells the story of the Japanese assault on these two great Chinese cities. The battle of Shanghai was the first large-scale urban warfare of World War II and one of the bloodiest battles of the entire Sino-Japanese War. The determined resistance by Chinese inflicted sizable Japanese casualties, and may well have contributed to the subsequent massacre of prisoners and civilians in the battle of Nanjing, tarnishing Japan's reputation in the eyes of the world.
This detailed study of the modern Chinese police force shows how the Nationalist forces under General Chiang Kai-shek set about to return Shanghai to Chinese rule, competing with the consular police forces of France, Japan and the International Settlement.
A common generalization about the Nationalist Government in China during the 1927-1937 decade has been that Chiang Kai-shek's regime was closely allied with the capitalists in Shanghai. This book brings to light a different picture--that Nanking sought to control the capitalists politically, to prevent them from having a voice in the political structure, and to milk the wealth of the urban economy for government coffers. This study documents major political conflicts between the capitalists and the government and demonstrates that the regime gradually suppressed the main organizations of the capitalists and gained control of many of their financial and industrial enterprises. This is the first systematic examination of the political role of the Shanghai capitalists during the Nanking decade. A number of related issues--the operation of the government bond market, the role of the Shanghai underworld and its ties to Chiang Kai-shek, the personalities and policies of key government officials such as TV. Soong and H.H. Kung, the Japanese attempt to control the economic policies of the Nanking government, and the growth of "bureaucratic capitalism"--are brought into focus.
Relying on documents previously unavailable to both Western and Chinese researchers, this history demonstrates how Western technology and evolving traditional values resulted in the birth of a unique form of print capitalism that would have a far-reaching and irreversible influence on Chinese culture. In the mid-1910s, what historians call the "Golden Age of Chinese Capitalism" began, accompanied by a technological transformation that included the drastic expansion of China's "Gutenberg revolution." This is a vital reevaluation of Chinese modernity that refutes views that China's technological development was slowed by culture or that Chinese modernity was mere cultural continuity.
This book details the inner workings of terrorist groups operating in China between 1937-41.
Fist academic study on modernity at the Shanghai Art College The Shanghai Art College was one of the most important art schools in Republican China. This is the first academic study written on the early history of the College. It makes a major contribution to the history of art education in China, Shanghai in particular. The book presents a new approach to how people understand the modernization of Chinese art, and the significance and consequences of modernity in the Shanghai art world of the period 1913-1937. The author proposes new theoretical models to explain the interactions between multiple levels of social structures and artists, with a special emphasis on the role of art education institutions in transforming artists, artworks and the development of artistic fields. Presenting unique historical images hereto hidden in the archives of the College, the book brings forward the distinctive modern characteristics of the early 20th-century Shanghai Art College.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, youth emerged as a new and important social force in many parts of the world. In China the image of this new youth imprinted itself on Chinese consciousness and made clear to potential national leaders that future governments would not be able to ignore China’s youth or expect them simply to step in line. For this and other reasons, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the Chinese Nationalist Party (GMD) and a string of War of Resistance-era collaborationist governments all formed youth organizations in an effort to win youth over and harness their vitality and enthusiasm to further their agendas. Mobilizing Shanghai Youth explores the similarities and differences among three youth organizations that were connected to Chinese political parties or governments in Shanghai, spanning from the beginning of the May Fourth Movement, just as youth began to emerge as a powerful social and political force in China, to World War II, when Nationalist, Communist and Japanese forces were still competing for dominance. It takes a comparative approach in exploring the similarities and differences, trials and tribulations in how the Chinese Communist Party, Chinese Nationalist Party and a series of collaborationist regimes sought to appeal to youth through the Communist Youth League, the Three People’s Principles Youth Corps and the China Youth Corps. Focusing on Greater Shanghai allows a detailed exploration of the rise and fall of the original Communist Youth League and its connections to international communism. The spotlight on Shanghai also yields the extraordinary finding that the Three People’s Principles Youth Corps was a valuable asset to the Nationalist Party, operating as a potent resistance organization in Japanese-controlled Shanghai whereas branches in Nationalist-controlled territory were factionalized, dysfunctional and a terrible liability for the Party. Most surprisingly, the collaborationist China Youth Corps took the most practical and in some ways the most successful approach to mobilizing China’s youth. The result of exhaustive archival research, this book will be of huge interest to students and scholars of Chinese history, modern history, Communism and the role of youth in revolution.
In the dazzling global metropolis of Shanghai, what has it meant to call this city home? In this account—part microhistory, part memoir—Jie Li salvages intimate recollections by successive generations of inhabitants of two vibrant, culturally mixed Shanghai alleyways from the Republican, Maoist, and post-Mao eras. Exploring three dimensions of private life—territories, artifacts, and gossip—Li re-creates the sounds, smells, look, and feel of home over a tumultuous century. First built by British and Japanese companies in 1915 and 1927, the two homes at the center of this narrative were located in an industrial part of the former "International Settlement." Before their recent demolition, they were nestled in Shanghai's labyrinthine alleyways, which housed more than half of the city's population from the Sino-Japanese War to the Cultural Revolution. Through interviews with her own family members as well as their neighbors, classmates, and co-workers, Li weaves a complex social tapestry reflecting the lived experiences of ordinary people struggling to absorb and adapt to major historical change. These voices include workers, intellectuals, Communists, Nationalists, foreigners, compradors, wives, concubines, and children who all fought for a foothold and haven in this city, witnessing spectacles so full of farce and pathos they could only be whispered as secret histories.
Student projects sponsored by Princeton, Hong Kong, and Tongji universities and reviewed by critics.
Focusing on the intellectual life of Shanghai under occupation, Fu describes Chinese responses to the Japanese Occupation of 1937-45
In Rana Mitter's tense, moving and hugely important book, the war between China and Japan - one of the most important struggles of the Second World War - at last gets the masterly history it deserves Different countries give different opening dates for the period of the Second World War, but perhaps the most compelling is 1937, when the 'Marco Polo Bridge Incident' plunged China and Japan into a conflict of extraordinary duration and ferocity - a war which would result in many millions of deaths and completely reshape East Asia in ways which we continue to confront today. With great vividness and narrative drive Rana Mitter's new book draws on a huge range of new sources to recreate this terrible conflict. He writes both about the major leaders (Chiang Kaishek, Mao Zedong and Wang Jingwei) and about the ordinary people swept up by terrible times. Mitter puts at the heart of our understanding of the Second World War that it was Japan's failure to defeat China which was the key dynamic for what happened in Asia. Reviews: 'A remarkable story, told with humanity and intelligence; all historians of the second world war will be in Mitter's debt ... [he] explores this complex politics with remarkable clarity and economy ... No one could ask for a better guide than Mitter to how [the rise of modern China] began in the cauldron of the Chinese war' Richard Overy, Guardian 'Rana Mitter's history of the Sino-Japanese War is not only a very important book, it also has a wonderful clarity of thought and prose which make it a pleasure to read' Antony Beevor 'The best study of China's war with Japan written in any language ... comprehensive, thoroughly based on research, and totally non-partisan. Above all, the book presents a moving account of the Chinese people's incredible suffering ... A must read for anyone interested in the origins of China's contribution to the making of today's world' Akira Iriye About the author: Rana Mitter is Professor of the History and Politics of Modern China at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Cross College. He is the author of A Bitter Revolution: China's Struggle with the Modern World. He is a regular presenter of Night Waves on Radio 3.
For close to two hundred years, the ideas of Shakespeare have inspired incredible work in the literature, fiction, theater, and cinema of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. From the novels of Lao She and Lin Shu to Lu Xun's search for a Chinese "Shakespeare," and from Feng Xiaogang's martial arts films to labor camp memoirs, Soviet-Chinese theater, Chinese opera in Europe, and silent film, Shakespeare has been put to work in unexpected places, yielding a rich trove of transnational imagery and paradoxical citations in popular and political culture. Chinese Shakespeares is the first book to concentrate on both Shakespearean performance and Shakespeare's appearance in Sinophone culture and their ambiguous relationship to the postcolonial question. Substantiated by case studies of major cultural events and texts from the first Opium War in 1839 to our times, Chinese Shakespeares theorizes competing visions of "China" and "Shakespeare" in the global cultural marketplace and challenges the logic of fidelity-based criticism and the myth of cultural exclusivity. In her critique of the locality and ideological investments of authenticity in nationalism, modernity, Marxism, and personal identities, Huang reveals the truly transformative power of Chinese Shakespeares.
SHANGHAI, 1937. Someone has killed the Yellow Swan Watching through Sun-jin's eyes as he investigates the murder, we experience the best and the worst aspects of this pleasure-mad, strife-ridden city, as it teeters on the brink of World War II.
The authors of this 2004 volume examine the Chinese War of Resistance against the Japanese in the Shanghai area.
In the U.S.A, the land of immigrants, Where do you come from? is often asked. When Tani Maher couldnt answer questions about her father, she posed her own. With its South American twist, told with puns and witty tales, Anatole Mahers Memoirs takes the reader on his personal voyage through life where he witnesses many of the major historical events of the 20th century. During the high-flying, war-torn epoch of Old Shanghai, into a cocktail of languages, culture and people, Anatole Maher is born. While the British toast the Queen at the exclusive Shanghai Club, the French hold soires at the Crcle Sportif Franais, and other foreigners sashay through Shanghais numerous ballrooms, the Chinese are often treated like third-class citizens. The Japanese want to conquer all of Asia, but the Americans intervene until Maos revolution overruns China, putting a stop to everything. In Memoirs: From Old Shanghai to the New World, Anatole Maher relates his early years in the Pearl of the Orient, a city where strong racial and social lines separate people, the pure bloods from the locals and mixed races, the rich and powerful from the lower, poorer classes. The youngest of seven children whose parents are of Macanese-Japanese descent, Anatole grows up in the culturally diverse International Settlement under the over-protective watch of his eldest sister. Despite the humble, lower-middle class origins of the Mahers, the family have two Amahs and a cook who live with them. Anatole attends the St. Francis Xavier College, becomes an active member of the Foreign YMCA, and graduates with First-Class honors from the Henry Lester Technical Institute. From early on, various battles and wars disrupt his life. His neighborhood in Hongkew is bombarded several times, but Anatole survives the Japanese Occupation and World War II unscathed. After WWII, he works on a Danish freighter ship to see the world. When he returns to China, the Communists are not yet in Shanghai but are winning one battle after another. Anatole finds a job and waits out the situation until the Communists finally kick him out. Japan is the closest country to take in him and his family. After a short stay in Tokyo, Anatole finds a job, but under the American Occupation all the privileges he once enjoyed in his native Shanghai vanish. In search of a better existence, he decides to join many of his Shanghai buddies who have immigrated to the country of the future, Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, he marries a Brazilian girl in 1955 and starts a family. His record of quitting jobs is no asset. When the Brazilian military dictatorship becomes increasingly oppressive, he runs into bad luck and gets fired. Under a politically repressive regime, with unstable personal finances, Anatole decides to abandon Brazil in 1967 for the Vietnam-War-fatigued United States. He settles in Jacksonville, Florida, a city with many geographical and climatic similarities to his birthplace Shanghai. As if to compensate for changing jobs and residences so often in the past, he remains at his first job in the U.S., Maxwell House Coffee, for 20 years until his retirement and never again moves from Jacksonville. With 16 grandchildren and six great grandchildren, Anatole and his wife Nair are still enjoying their retirement in the Sunshine State.
This volume presents a wide variety of articles in the broad field of Asian Studies, covering the latest results of research within the social sciences and the humanities, reflecting the rich diversity within these areas of research. The contributions stem from research carried out by scholars who are or have been affiliated with the International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden/Amsterdam).
This book argues that the fundamental shift in Chinese Cinema away from Socialism and towards Post-Socialism can be located earlier than the emergence of the "Fifth Generation" in the mid-eighties when it is usually assumed to have occured. By close analysis of films from the 1949-1976 Maoist era in comparison with 1976-81 films representing the Cultural Revolution, it demonstrates that the latter already breaks away from Socialism.

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