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Table of contents
The proceedings book of the Global Symposium on Soil Erosion (GSER19) contains all papers presented both orally and in poster format during the symposium (15-17 May 2019, FAO HQ). The papers presented have provided sufficient scientific evidence to show that soil erosion is a global threat to food production systems, available land for future demand, rural livelihoods, human health and biodiversity, and that coordinated effective action needs to be fostered and accelerated to address this issue. Studies presented provided scientific evidence that soil erosion is accelerated by anthropogenic action. In the current context of population increase and climate change, urgent action is needed from governments to support farmers and land-users in the transition to sustainable production systems, and crucial action is needed at global level to raise awareness of the importance of healthy and productive soils, to ensure a sustainable future and the achievement of many of the SDGs targeting hunger, water quality, and life on land, amongst others.
Soil resources depletion is a widespread, direct threat to the sustainability of agricultural production. Dramatic changes in soil management concepts are needed to counter the threat. This manual proposes options for such changes, addressing a very broad variety of topics related to agricultural land management ranging from chemical and physical attributes of soils, soil management concepts, mechanization and tillage, mulching and green manure, erosion control and water resources management, to concepts of participative transfer of technologies.
Soils are affected by human activities, such as industrial, municipal and agriculture, that often result in soil degradation and loss. In order to prevent soil degradation and to rehabilitate the potentials of degraded soils, reliable soil data are the most important prerequisites for the design of appropriate land-use systems and soil management practices as well as for a better understanding of the environment. The availability of reliable information on soil morphology and other characteristics obtained through examination and description of the soil in the field is essential, and the use of a common language is of prime importance. These guidelines, based on the latest internationally accepted systems and classifications, provide a complete procedure for soil description and for collecting field data. To help beginners, some explanatory notes are included as well as keys based on simple test and observations.--Publisher's description.
The purposes and uses of soil classification and mapping. Techniques of soil surveing and mapping. The soil survey report. Classifying soils. Administration of soil classification and mapping. Suggestions and recommendations.
Evaluating the impact of soil degradation o food security. Past and present effects of soil degradation. Future effects of soil degradation and threats to developing-country food security. Policy and research priorities.
Soil is essential to agriculture and a resource that cannot be replaced easily. Nevertheless, its importance to food production and the threats to its sustainability are often overlooked. This book, the 35th volume of Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, examines the current status of soils across the globe and their potential for food production to meet the needs of the World's population in the 21st Century. Threats, such as the degradation, pollution and erosion of soil are discussed, along with the possible consequences of climate change for soil and food production. As an ecosystem service, soil also serves to capture nutrients and sequester carbon, and these issues are discussed in the context of adding value to soil protection. The influence of modern agricultural techniques in enhancing soil productivity is also discussed. Throughout the book case studies support the discussion. Together with the books on Ecosystem Services, Sustainable Water, and Environmental Impacts of Modern Agriculture, this addition to the series will be essential reading for anyone concerned with the environment, whether as scientist, policy maker, student or lay reader.
"In recent years the issue of food security has become centre stage in the global agenda. Through a multidisciplinary approach, this book provides an overview of the new global challenges connected with land, food supply and agriculture. It does not simply raise the debate; rather it aspires to move forward the debate that has started with the G20 meetings. "--
Just five years ago, it was generally believed that the number of food insecure people in the world was on continuous decline. Unfortunately, widespread soil degradation along with resistance to recommended agronomic practices, and little attempt to restore degraded soils have conspired with significant droughts (in regions that could least tolerate them) to swell the ranks of the food insecure to over a billion people. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals’ intent to halve hunger by 2015 will not be realized. Food Security and Soil Quality brings together leading experts from across the world to provide a concise and factually supported exploration of the problem at hand and the critical steps needed to reverse it. Edited by Rattan Lal, and B.A. Stewart, two of the world’s most respected soil scientists, this important work — Assesses farming systems and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on land degradation Examines concerns with and approaches to soil quality management in Brazil and China Details achievable methods for improving soil quality for sustainable production Provides an insightful comparison of temporal changes in agricultural systems productivity in Punjab, India and Ohio Discusses the human dimension of the crisis including the influence of culture and spiritual beliefs Dr. Lal himself writes that despite the existence of scientific data on sustainable management of soil and water resources, problems of soil and environmental degradation have persisted and have been aggravated. And that these problems are rooted in land misuse and soil mismanagement. This book does provide policymakers and others with an understanding of the depth, complexity, and immediacy of this crisis, but more than a call to action, it also offers soil scientists working in this area with an understanding of what is being done and what needs to be done. Most importantly, this book helps us understand that the situation is not beyond remediation were we to act with great resolve and a sense of urgency. A tree's leaves may be ever so good, So may its bark, so may its wood; But unless you put the right thing to its root, It never will show much flower or fruit. — from Leaves Compared With Flowers, by Robert Frost
This publication reviews issues related to land degradation, with focus on problems of soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa. It highlights some successful experiences in the region, constraints and possible solutions specific to the major agro-ecological zones and the importance of the holistic and participatory approaches for soil productivity improvement. The need for action and collaborative efforts of all stakeholders, within the framework of ongoing initiatives, are emphasized. It is hoped that this document will contribute to increase awareness of senior specialists and policy-makers about the problems and alternative solutions towards enhanced and sustained soil productivity.
'Action is needed to fight poverty by sustaining the environment and the use of natural resources. Land Quality, Agricultural Productivity, and Food Security explores a range of factors driving food security. The book offers an assessment to link quality of the available land resources with productivity of land and the ability to ensure food security. It offers a mixture of broad-scale assessments across the globe, with detailed case studies, deepening our understanding of economics and decision-making mechanisms. It is recommended to researchers, as well as actors in the private and public domain, who are keen to improve their understanding of the appropriate actions that ensure food security in the decade to come.' - Floor Brouwer, Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), The Hague, The Netherlands Land quality and land degradation affect agricultural productivity and food security, but quantifying these relationships has been difficult. Data are extremely limited and outcomes are sensitive to the choices that farmers make. The contributors to this book - including soil scientists, geographers, and economists - analyse data on soils, climate, land cover, agricultural inputs and outputs, and a variety of socio-economic factors to provide new insights into three key issues: * the extent to which differences in land quality generate differences in agricultural productivity across countries * how farmers' responses to differences or changes in land quality are influenced by economic, environmental, and institutional factors, and * whether land degradation over time threatens productivity growth and food security at local, regional, and global levels.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the soils of Bangladesh. It is compiled by authors with vast experience in soil related problems and potential mitigation approaches. It discusses the development of Soil Science as an individual discipline in a country with limited resources and where soil plays a pivotal role for the economy; the formation of different agro-climatic regions; and the effects of human-induced soil degradation and climatic change on its soils, geology and geomorphology and major soil types. It examines 'problem soils' and how they are managed, the scenario of soil fertility status, and land and crop management, as well as focusing on the future soils. Topics covered include: the history of soil research in Bangladesh; agro-climatic regions of Bangladesh; soil and climatic change, major soil types; soil maps; soil properties; soil classification; soil fertility; land use and vegetation; land use changes; human-induced soil degradation; soil contaminants; and future soil issues. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and soil science professionals.
1956 a revolution in agriculture and nutrition far in advance of organic culture. How to produce foods many times richer in vitamins and minerals that organic foods. Learn about new super foods for health regeneration with higher vitamin and mineral co.
Policymakers and technology development institutions have mostly focused on high-potential farming areas, which have better resource endowments and greater access to markets and infrastructure than less-favored areas. However, in developing nations more than one billion people live in less-favored areas, where, despite disadvantages, appropriate policies and programs can generate high returns and contribute significantly to poverty reduction. IFPRI and its partners' research in the highlands of Ethiopia shows how poverty and land degradation can be reduced in a less-favored area. Using a bioeconomic model to analyze the effects that land degradation, population growth, stagnant technology, market imperfections, and increased risk of drought have on household production, welfare, and food security, the report gauges how alternative policy choices affect poverty and land degradation. According to the study, land quality and household welfare are both in peril in the Ethiopian highlands.The population in the region could suffer devastating effects if proper policies are not put in place. The bioeconomic modeling approach used in this study can be usefully adapted and applied in many other settings and at larger spatial and socioeconomic scales.
Of late, farming community in India has been facing new challenges of food and nutrition security, human health and structural adjustment to comply with WTO stipulations on the one hand and sustainable environment on the other. The overuse of fertilizers and chemicals, and depleting water resources are essentially threatening the sustainability of Indian agriculture. The slow growth of agriculture sector mainly due to stagnation in productivity growth is a grave concern for policy-makers and development planners. The key challenge to India's agriculture in the 21st century in the wake of open global economy lies in designing, developing and managing agricultural systems that enable farmers to be efficient, equitable and sustainable in the bio-physical and socio-cultural environments. This book has deliberated on the key issues of sustainable agriculture in the context of emerging technologies, policies and institutions by promoting efficiency, equity and better management of natural resources. In the process, thoughts and experience of world-class leaders in agricultural education, research, extension, policy, agri-business and development in addressing the challenges confronting farmers have been documented

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