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In an effort to further investigation into critical development facets of geographic information systems (GIS), this book explores the reasoning processes that apply to geographic space and time. As a result of an iniative sponsored by the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), it treats the computational, cognitive and social science applications aspects of spatial and temporal reasoning in GIS. Essays were contributed by scholars from a broad spectrum of disciplines including: geography, cartography, surveying and engineering, computer science, mathematics and environmental and cognitive psychology.
Qualitative reasoning about space and time - a reasoning at the human level - promises to become a fundamental aspect of future systems that will accompany us in daily activity. The aim of Spatial and Temporal Reasoning is to give a picture of current research in this area focusing on both representational and computational issues. The picture emphasizes some major lines of development in this multifaceted, constantly growing area. The material in the book also shows some common ground and a novel combination of spatial and temporal aspects of qualitative reasoning. Part I presents the overall scene. The chapter by Laure Vieu is on the state of the art in spatial representation and reasoning, and that by Alfonso Gerevini gives a similar survey on research in temporal reasoning. The specific contributions to these areas are then grouped in the two main parts. In Part II, Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi examine the ontological status of spatial entities; Anthony Cohn, Brandon Bennett, John Gooday, and Nicholas Gotts present a detailed theory of reasoning with qualitative relations about regions; Andrew Frank discusses the spatial needs of geographical information systems; and Annette Herskovits focuses on the linguistic expression of spatial relations. In Part III, James Allen and George Ferguson describe an interval temporal logic for the representation of actions and events; Drew McDermott presents an efficient way of predicting the outcome of plan execution; and Erik Sandewall introduces a semantics based on transitions for assessing theories of action and change. In Part IV, Antony Galton's chapter stands clearly between the two areas of space and time and outlines the main coordinates of an integrated approach.
This volume collects the papers presented at the first international conference dedicated to spatial and temporal reasoning in geographic space, entitled "GIS: from space to territory - theories and methods of spatio-temporal reasoning". Within the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA, one of the supporters of the conference) the importance of spatial and temporal reasoning was recognized several years ago. Initial research found that spatial reasoning in geographic or large-scale space is different from spatial reasoning in small-scale space, as usually dealt with in robotics and expertsystems. Temporal reasoning has attracted interest in the artificial intelligence community. The volume also includes two invited papers: "Do people understand spatial concepts: the case of first-order primtives" by R.G. Golledge, and "Temporal databases" by R.T. Snodgrass.
CD-ROM contains: Examples and code from text.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT 3001, held in Morro Bay, CA, USA in September 2001. The 30 revised full papers presented together with three full keynote papers were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 70 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on geographical ontology and onthologies; qualitative spatio-temporal reasoning; formalizations of human spatial cognition; space, cognition, and information systems; human and machine approaches to navigation; language and space; and cognitive mapping.
Spatio-Temporal Databases explores recent trends in flexible querying and reasoning about time- and space-related information in databases. It shows how flexible querying enhances standard querying expressiveness in many different ways, with the aim of facilitating extraction of relevant data and information. Flexible spatial and temporal reasoning denotes qualitative reasoning about dynamic changes in the spatial domain, characterized by imprecision or uncertainty (or both). Many of the contributions focus on GIS, while some others are more general, or focus on related application fields, presenting theoretical viewpoints and techniques that are inspiring or can be adapted for GIS. The first part bundles the contributions on advances at the theoretical level, also discussing examples and opening further perspectives. The second part presents contributions on well-developed applications. The authors explain how to handle imprecision and uncertainty, demonstrating how advanced techniques can help to solve diverse problems related to GIS.
The main approach to understanding and creating knowledge engineering concepts is static knowledge. Currently, there is a need to approach knowledge through a dynamic lens and address changing relations on an elaborated syntactic and semantic basis. Dynamic Knowledge Representation in Scientific Domains provides emerging research on the internal and external changes in knowledge within various subject areas and their visual representations. While highlighting topics such as behavior diagrams, distribution analysis, and qualitative modeling, this publication explores the structural development and assessment of knowledge models. This book is an important resource for academicians, researchers, students, and practitioners seeking current research on information visualization in order to foster research and collaboration.
"Qualitative Spatial Reasoning (QSR) has varying applications in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), visual programming language semantics, and digital image analysis [17, 53]. Systems for spatial reasoning over a set of objects have evolved in both expressive power and complexity, but implementations or usages of these systems are not common. This is partially due to the computational complexity of the operations required by the reasoner to make informed decisions about its surroundings. These theoretical systems are designed to focus on certain criteria, including efficiency of computation, ease of human comprehension, and expressive power. Sadly, the implementation of these systems is frequently left as an exercise for the reader. Herein, a new QSR system, VRCC-3D+, is proposed that strives to maximize expressive power while minimizing the complexity of reasoning and computational cost of using the system. This system is an evolution of RCC-3D; the system and implementation are constantly being refined to handle the complexities of the reasoning being performed. The refinements contribute to the accuracy, correctness, and speed of the implementation. To improve the accuracy and correctness of the implementation, a way to dynamically change error tolerance in the system to more accurately reflect what the user sees is designed. A method that improves the speed of determining spatial relationships between objects by using composition tables and decision trees is introduced, and improvements to the system itself are recommended; by streamlining the relation set and enforcing strict rules for the precision of the predicates that determine the relationships between objects. A potential use case and prototype implementation is introduced to further motivate the need for implementations of QSR systems, and show that their use is not precluded by computational complexity."--Abstract, page iv.
Developments in Geographic Information Technology have raised the expectations of users. A static map is no longer enough; there is now demand for a dynamic representation. Time is of great importance when operating on real world geographical phenomena, especially when these are dynamic. Researchers in the field of Temporal Geographical Infor
This third volume documents the results achieved within a priority program on spatial cognition funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG). The 23 revised full papers presented went through two rounds of reviewing and improvement and reflect the increased interdisciplinary cooperation in the area. The papers are organized in topical sections on routes and navigation, human memory and learning, spatial representation, and spatial reasoning.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Web and Wirelsss Geographical Information Systems, W2GIS 2008, held in Shanghai, China, in December 2008. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions. The papers span a wide area including but not limited to Conceptual and logical models, Data management and retrieval, Geographical search engines, Web services, Query languages and interfaces, 2D and 3D information visualization, Exploratory cartography and interfaces, Data mining, Security and usability, Location-based services, Peer-to-peer computing, Cyber-geography, Semantic geo-spatial web, Mobile & Wireless GIS, Telematics and GIS Applications, Ubiquitous GIS, Personalization and adaptation as well as Wayfinding and navigation.
Spatio-temporal Approaches presents a well-built set of concepts, methods and approaches, in order to represent and understand the evolution of social and environmental phenomena within the space. It is basedon examples in human geography and archeology (which will enable us to explore questions regarding various temporalities) and tackles social and environmental phenomena. Chapter 1 discusses how to apprehend change: objects, attributes, relations, processes. Chapter 2 introduces multiple points of view about modeling and the authors try to shed a new light on the different, but complementary approaches of geomaticians and thematicians. Chapter 3 is devoted to the construction of spatio-temporal indicators, to various measurements of the change, while highlighting the advantage of an approach crossing several points of view, in order to understand the phenomenon at hand. Chapter 4 presents different categories of simulation model in line with complexity sciences. These models rely notably on the concepts of emergence and self-organization and allow us to highlight the roles of interaction within change. Chapter 5 provides ideas on research concerning the various construction approaches of hybrid objects and model couplings.
"This book discusses the complete range of contemporary research topics such as computer modeling, geometry, geoprocessing, and geographic information systems"--Provided by publisher.
Provides a survey of the approaches used and the problems encountered in the model of real geophysical data.
The way people normally view a GIS is 2-dimensional, a greatly limiting form. However, as developments occur within the field, researchers and practitioners are finding ways to make a GIS 3-dimensional, and in some instances even 4-dimensional. Being able to view a GIS in more than 2 dimensions greatly enhances its usability. This forward-looking text, looks at the ways in which 3- and 4-dimensional (multidimensional) GIS can be incorporated into the area in the future using a variety of programming techniques. The author of this unique book also discusses current examples and uses of multidimensional GIS in the field and shows the way forward for users in the coming years.
A significant part of understanding how people use geographic information and technology concerns human cognition. This book provides the first comprehensive in-depth examination of the cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction for geographic information systems (GIS). Cognitive aspects are treated in relation to individual, group, behavioral, institutional, and cultural perspectives. Extensions of GIS in the form of spatial decision support systems and SDSS for groups are part of the geographic information technology considered. Audience: Geographic information users, systems analysts and system designers, researchers in human-computer interaction will find this book an information resource for understanding cognitive aspects of geographic information technology use, and the methods appropriate for examining this use.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT '99, held in Stade, Germany, in August 1999. The 30 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 70 submissions. The book is divided into topical sections on landmarks and navigation, route directions, abstraction and spatial hierarchies, spatial reasoning calculi, ontology of space, visual representation and reasoning, maps and routes, and granularity and qualitative abstraction.
These are the proceedings of the First International Conference on Compu- tional Logic (CL 2000) which was held at Imperial College in London from 24th to 28th July, 2000. The theme of the conference covered all aspects of the theory, implementation, and application of computational logic, where computational logic is to be understood broadly as the use of logic in computer science. The conference was collocated with the following events: { 6th International Conference on Rules and Objects in Databases (DOOD 2000) { 10th International Workshop on Logic-based Program Synthesis and Tra- formation (LOPSTR 2000) { 10th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming (ILP 2000). CL 2000 consisted of seven streams: { Program Development (LOPSTR 2000) { Logic Programming: Theory and Extensions { Constraints { Automated Deduction: Putting Theory into Practice { Knowledge Representation and Non-monotonic Reasoning { Database Systems (DOOD 2000) { Logic Programming: Implementations and Applications. The LOPSTR 2000 workshop constituted the program development stream and the DOOD 2000 conference constituted the database systems stream. Each stream had its own chair and program committee, which autonomously selected the papers in the area of the stream. Overall, 176 papers were submitted, of which 86 were selected to be presented at the conference and appear in these proceedings. The acceptance rate was uniform across the streams. In addition, LOPSTR 2000 accepted about 15 extended abstracts to be presented at the conference in the program development stream.
This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.
Papers originally presented at a seminar held at the Chateau de la Bretesche in July 1996.

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