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This volume investigates the relationship between the central government and the provinces during the Ur III period (2112-2004 B.C.). Specifically, the book focuses on one system of taxation known as bala," or "rotation," so called as provinces' payments rotated month by month throughout the year. This work is the first to take an interarchival approach, discussing Sumerian tablets from Umma, Lagash and Puzri -Dagan, and is the first major synthesis of what has long been recognized as a fundamental institution. The book contains six chapters and detailed appendices (including charts, the edition of approximately 150 previously unpublished tablets and bibliographical material)."
Contents Series Foreword / K. C. Hanson Select Bibliography / K. C. Hanson Preface Abbreviations I. The People and Language of Sumer II. The Script and Writing System III. Phonology IV. Word Roots V. Formation of Connections VI. Sentence Elements VII. The Substantive VIII. The Adjective IX. The Pronouns X. Numbers XI. Equivalents of Prepositions and Conjunctions XII. The Verb
This book explores the reasons for which weights and scales were used to measure goods in Early Mesopotamia (ca. 3,200-2,000 BCE). The vast corpus of cuneiform records from this period sheds light on the various mechanisms behind the development of this cultural innovation. Weighing became the means of articulating the value of both imported and locally-produced goods within a socioeconomic system that had reached an unprecedented level of complexity. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of this cultural and economic phenomenon, which simultaneously reflected and shaped the relationships between individuals and groups in Mesopotamia throughout the third millennium BCE.
The Harvard Semitic Museum possesses ten archival cuneiform tablets from Seleucid Uruk bearing the impressions of ninety-five different metal finger rings and stone stamp seals. Typically, texts and seal impressions are treated exclusively of eachother. This volume treats for the first time sealed cuneiform tablets as integrated wholes. It comprises two interconnected parts consisting of critical editions of the texts and a catalogue raisonne of the seal impressions. A hand copy, transliteration, translation, philological notes, and a commentary treating the occurrences, activities and seals of each person named in the light of some four hundred fifty other contemporary documents accompany each text. Included with the seal impressions are measurements, descriptions, interpretive drawings, photographs, and comparanda, as well as data identifying each seal's owner, each occasion of its use and references to other seals used by each sealer, where known. In the index of Personal Names, text citations and, where possible, seal catalogue numbers are provided for each entry.
Living Waters - Scandinavian Oriental Studies. In Honour of Frede Løkkegaard
In 1989, David Tsumura published a monograph entitled The Earth and the Waters in Genesis 1 and 2: A Linguistic Evaluation, in which he demonstrated that the oft-recited claim that the early chapters of Genesis betrayed a background or adaptation by Israel of mythological terms and/or motifs from other ancient Near Eastern literature could not be supported by a close examination of the linguistic data. Despite the book's positive reception, the notion that the Chaoskampf motif lies behind the early chapters of Genesis continues to be rehearsed in the literature as if the data were incontrovertible. In this revised and expanded edition of the 1989 book, Tsumura carries the discussion forward. In part 1, the general thesis of the original work is restated in a significantly revised and expanded form; in the second part of this monograph, he expands the scope of his research to include a number of poetic texts outside the Primeval History, texts for which scholars often have posited an ancient Near Eastern mythological substratum. Among the questions asked are the following: What are the functions of "waters" and "flood" in biblical poetry? Do the so-called chaos dragons in the Old Testament, such as Leviathan, Rahab, and Yam, have anything to do with the creation motif in the biblical tradition? What is the relationship between these poetic texts and the Ugaritic myths of the Baal-Yam conflict? Are Psalms 18 and 29 "adaptations" of Canaanite hymns, as suggested by some scholars? Among the conclusions that Tsumura reaches are these: (1) The phrase tohû wabohû has nothing to do with the idea of a chaotic state of the earth. (2) The term tehà ́m in Gen 1:2 is a Hebrew form derived from the Proto-Semitic *tiham-, "ocean," and it usually refers to the underground water that was overflowing and covering the entire surface of the earth in the initial state of creation. (3) The earth-water relationship in Gen 2:5-6 is different from that in Gen 1:2. In Gen 1:2, the earth was totally under the water; in Gen 2:5-6, only a part of the earth, the land, was watered by the 'ed-water, which was overflowing from an underground source. (4) The biblical poetic texts that are claimed to have been influenced by the Chaoskampf-motif of the ancient Near East in fact use the language of storms and floods metaphorically and have nothing to do with primordial combat.
Originally presented as the author's thesis (doctoral--Harvard University, 1986).
Monographs and collections of essays on the history, religion, social life, and literature of northern Mesopotamia during the second millennium B.C., when the Hurrians, a people with their own language and culture dominated much of northern Mesopotamia. Contains a new trilingual (Sumerian, Akkadian, Hurrian) tablet from Ugarit, contributions to the Hurrian lexicon and personal names, observations on the Mittani letter, and extensive studies in Hurrian grammar and Nuzi society. This volume also contains 109 new Harvard Semitic Museum texts and fragments in copies, as well as additions to previously published copies of JEN texts and many new joins.

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