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'The Great Pyramid and the Sphinx' provides a reliable and insightful guide to the meaning and origin of the Great Pyramid, the Sphinx, and associated monuments on the Giza Plateau. Cutting through speculation and conservative attidudes, this guide offers authoritative conclusions about the Great Pyramid, the Sphinx and other Old Kingdom monuments of Egypt. A new generation of Egyptologists have established these monuments were used for initiatory religions, similar to the Greek Mysteries. Discover: * A new interpretation of the mystical themes embodied in the architecture and features of the Great Pyramid, the underground Chamber of Osiris, the Sphinx and the valley temples. * Why the pyramid shape was chosen, why the Sphinx has a lion shape, and how the different purposes to these monuments form an integrated sacred site. * What feelings and values inspired the ancient Egyptians to build these temples. * The crucial roles of Pharaoh Khufu and Khafre, of Hermes, of the priests at Heliopolis. * How the monuments sserved the rites of the after-life and the sun god Ra-Harmachis. * The awe-inspiring technological and engineering achievements. * The relevance of the star Sirius, and Osiris to the ancient Egyptians.
*Includes pictures of the Sphinx and the pyramids. *Discusses the theories about their age, construction, and purpose. *Covers the archaeological and cultural history of the Sphinx and the pyramids. *Includes footnotes and a Bibliography. "When we find something new at Giza, we announce it to the world. The Sphinx and the Pyramids are world treasures. We are the guardian's of these treasures, but they belong to the world." - Zahi Hawass, Egyptologist The pyramids of Egypt are such recognizable symbols of antiquity that for millennia, people have made assumptions about what they are and why they exist, without full consideration of the various meanings these ancient symbolic structures have had over the centuries. Generations have viewed them as symbols of a lost past, which in turn is often portrayed as a world full of romance and mystery. This verbal meaning has become associated with the structures through the tourism industry, where intrigue obviously boosts ticket sales. In fact, the Egyptian pyramids are so old that they were also drawing tourists even in ancient times. In antiquity, the Great Pyramid of Giza was listed as one of Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, and it is the only one still surviving today. The age and structural integrity of the pyramids also make them symbols of longevity and power, which is only fitting because those are two purposes the ancient pharaohs who commissioned these works intended them to serve. For the pharaohs, the construction of these large monuments presented an opportunity for them to showcase their influence and become something to be remembered by, both in the society they ruled and in the annals of history that would follow. Even as new dynasties came and went, and even as Egypt was subjected to foreign domination and rulers from across the world, the pyramids have continued to stand as a prominent testament to Ancient Egypt's glorious past. The famous "Riddle of the Sphinx," told by Sophocles in his play Oedipus Rex in the 5th century B.C., characterized the sphinx as a clever and powerful creature, and even today young kids learn about the story. But the mysteries of the Egyptian statue were discussed even among the ancient Romans; Pliny the Elder, the famous Roman author and philosopher killed in Pompeii during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D., wrote in his Natural Histories that contemporary Egyptians considered the Sphinx a "divinity" and "that King Harmais was buried in it." Nearly 2,000 years later, people still wonder about the origins of the statue, but most believe it was constructed around the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C. As anyone who has seen the statue is now aware, it has suffered weatherization damage, and even the sources of the damage has been debated and turned into the stuff of legend, as evidenced by the story of Napoleon's French soldiers shooting off the Sphinx's nose. In conjunction with that, there are mysteries over the archaeological history of the statue, including whether the ancient Egyptians themselves attempted to excavate the Sphinx and clear the sands that were beginning to cover it up. This book comprehensively covers the facts, mysteries, and theories surrounding the pyramids and the Sphinx. Along with pictures and a bibliography, you will learn about them like never before.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 30. Chapters: Giza Plateau, Great Pyramid of Giza, Great Sphinx of Giza, Giza West Field, Giza Necropolis, Khufu ship, Orion Correlation Theory, Giza East Field, Pyramid of Menkaure, Cemetery GIS, Pyramid of Khafre, Grand Egyptian Museum, Central Field, Giza, Gilf Kebir, Hall of Records, Hemiunu, The Twelve Dreams of the Sun, The Upuaut Project. Excerpt: The Great Sphinx of Giza (Arabic: ?, English: ), commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558-2532 BC). The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it, such as who was the model for the face, when it was built, and by whom, are still debated. These questions have resulted in the popular idea of the "Riddle of the Sphinx," although this phrase should not be confused with the original Greek legend of the Riddle of the Sphinx. The Great Sphinx in about 1880, partly under the sand The Great Sphinx partially excavated The Sphinx against Khafra's pyramid It is not known by what name the creators called their statue, as the Great Sphinx does not appear in any known inscription of the Old Kingdom, and there are no inscriptions anywhere describing its construction or its original purpose. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx was called Hor-em-akhet (English: Hellenized: Harmachis), and the pharaoh Thutmose IV (1401-1391 or 1397-1388 BC) specifically referred to it as such...
This lavishly illustrated and well-documented book will be an invaluable resource to anyone traveling to or interested in Egypt.
Sphinxes are legion in Egypt--what is so special about this one?... We shall take a stroll around the monument itself, scrutinizing its special features and analyzing the changes it experienced throughout its history. The evidence linked to the statue will enable us to trace its evolution... down to the worship it received in the first centuries of our own era, when Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans mingled together in devotion to this colossus, illustrious witness to a past that was already more than two millennia old.--from the Introduction The Great Sphinx of Giza is one of the few monuments from ancient Egypt familiar to nearly everyone. In a land where the colossal is part of the landscape, it still stands out, the largest known statue in Egypt. Originally constructed as the image of King Chephren, builder of the second of the Great Pyramids, the Sphinx later acquired new fame in the guise of the sun god Harmakhis. Major construction efforts in the New Kingdom and Roman Period transformed the monument and its environs into an impressive place of pilgrimage, visited until the end of pagan antiquity. Christiane Zivie-Coche, a distinguished Egyptologist, surveys the long history of the Great Sphinx and discusses its original appearance, its functions and religious significance, its relation to the many other Egyptian sphinxes, and the various discoveries connected with it. From votive objects deposited by the faithful and inscriptions that testify to details of worship, she reconstructs the cult of Harmakhis (in Egyptian, Har-em-akhet, or Horus-in-the-horizon), which arose around the monument in the second millennium. We are faced, she writes, with a religious phenomenon that is entirely original, though not unique: a theological reinterpretation turned an existing statue into the image of the god who had been invented on its basis. The coming of Christianity ended the Great Sphinx's religious role. The ever-present sand buried it, thus sparing it the fate that overtook the nearby pyramids, which were stripped of their stone by medieval builders. The monument remained untouched, covered by its desert blanket, until the first excavations. Zivie-Coche details the archaeological activity aimed at clearing the Sphinx and, later, at preserving it from the corrosive effects of a rising water table. --Elizabeth Crowley, Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2003 "Egyptian Archeology"
The most remarkable piece of ground in the World as Flinders Petrie described the Giza Plateau. Here the Pyramid Complexes of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure have stood for 4,600 years. The Giza pyramids have been scientifically studied for the last 300 years; now for the first time all three are brought together in one book. Virtually all contemporary "pyramid" books address only Khufu's Great Pyramid. This book provides a complete detailed look at all three Giza pyramids and their complexes: the Sphinx, subsidiary pyramids, temples, boat pits, and enclosures. The descriptions are supplemented by almost 300 photos and drawings to provide the reader a detail look which can only be surpassed by being there in person with a very knowledgeable guide. But it is not just descriptions as the complexes are today, but how the early explorers entered the pyramids and what they found. In addition Charles Rigano provides new ideas on: * How Khufu was interred in his Great Pyramid. * How the first robbers gained entry and robbed Khufu's pyramid. * How Caliph Al Mamun in 820AD really penetrated the Great Pyramid. * Why Heterpheres "tomb" is at Giza. * Why there is a field of stone bases near Khafre's Pyramid. * The initial smaller plan for Khafre's Pyramid. * Conclusive evidence that ties the Sphinx to Khafre. * How Menkaure's Burial Chamber and Inclined Passage were built. In this book Charles Rigano combines both his on-site examinations and study of more than 200 references from the early explorers to the recent Egyptologists to form a complete picture of the Pyramid Complexes. This material is available nowhere else in a single volume.
Andreu describes the Egyptians as they spend a day in the marshes with family and friends. They glide on light skiffs through the papyrus plants, stopping occasionally to marvel at the marsh creatures: frogs, butterflies, kingfishers, ibises, herons, lapwings, weasels, and mongooses. Because the marshes also shelter crocodiles and hippopotamuses, the day is not without its perils.
The Egyptologist acclaimed for re-dating the Great Sphinx at Giza sets his sights on one of the true mysteries of antiquity: the Great Pyramid of Giza. What is the Great Pyramid of Giza? Ask that basic question of a traditional Egyptologist, and you get the basic, traditional answer: a fancy tombstone for a self-important pharaoh of the Old Kingdom. This, Egyptologists argue, is the sole finding based on the data, and the only deduction supported by science. By implication, anyone who dissents from this point of view is unscientific and woolly-minded-a believer in magic and ghosts. Indeed, some of the unconventional ideas about the Great Pyramid do have a spectacularly fabulous ring to them. Yet from beneath the obvious terms of this controversy, a deeper, more significant question arises: how is it that the Great Pyramid exercises such a gripping hold on the human psyche- adding cryptic grace to the back of the one-dollar bill and framing myriad claims of New Age "pyramid power"? In Pyramid Quest, Robert M. Schoch and Robert Aquinas McNally use the rigorous intellectual analysis of scientific inquiry to investigate what we know about the Great Pyramid, and develop a stunning hypothesis: This ancient monument is the strongest proof yet that civilization began thousands of years earlier than is generally thought, extending far back into a little-known time. In tracing that story, we come to understand not only the Great Pyramid but also our own origins as civilized beings.
Egyptian archeologist, Dr. Khalid Saad discovers a hidden chamber in the right paw of the Great Spinx using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). He invites his life-long friend, American archeologist, Dr Cliff Post to join him on the expedition to open the hidden chamber. Cliff eagerly agrees. Before they can open the chamber, they must obtain a digging permit from the Supreme Council on Antiquities. To obtain the permit, Cliff and Khalid must contend with Dr. Hosnee Sadat who wants to open the chamber himself and to bar all westerners from the expedition. When the chamber is opened, they discover an ancient supercomputer composed of 13 crystal skulls. After the computer is discovered, Drs. Post and Saad are followed, spied on and kidnapped. The Hidden Chamber in the Great Sphinx has a great deal of factually based information on ancient Egypt which is rolled into a fun mystery/adventure. Learn the fate of Drs. Post, Saad and Sadat.
"Exploring Egypt's lost underworld for the first time"--Cover.
New interpretations of ancient writings, the discovery of hidden chambers in Egypt, and other findings provide evidence of extraterrestrial contact with the ancient cultures of Earth
Classic exploration of the Great Pyramid's construction and objectives combines imagination, erudition. Physical form; when it was built, and by whom; roles as an astronomical observatory, source of inspiration for religious teachings, more.
In 2002 a two-volume manuscript memoir on the Pyramids and Sphinx, by Henry Salt, was rediscovered in the archives of the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, at the British Museum. It was then studied in depth for the first time. The Text volume, written by Salt, the British Consul General in Egypt from 1816 until his death there in 1827, relates the results of work carried out by Captain Caviglia in 1816-18 in the Giza necropolis area on Salt's behalf. The Atlas volume contains 66 original drawings by Salt, showing the first modern excavation of the Sphinx and illustrates their discoveries beneath the Sphinx, in the Great Pyramid and among the surrounding tombs. These drawings include an annotated ground plan of the Giza necropolis which, for the first time, elucidates their discoveries. Salt also made accurate and important early copies of hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions found during the Sphinx excavations and recorded the massive Roman stairway that was later cleared away. The work also enables us to illustrate and provenance certain pieces which came to the Museum through Salt and Caviglia.
A detailed study of the proportions of the Giza pyramids and how they reveal shifts in the Earth’s axis in the remote past—and near future • Debunks the “pyramids as tombs” theory and shows how they are “recovery vaults” to ensure the rebirth of civilization after a global disaster • Explains in detail how the angles and geometry of the Great Pyramid record a shift of the world’s axis in 3980 BCE and predict more to come • Uncovers the location of an additional as-yet-undiscovered “recovery vault” on the Giza plateau, as revealed in the myth of Osiris Offering a radical new perspective on the Great Pyramid of Giza and all the structures surrounding it, including the Sphinx, Scott Creighton and Gary Osborn show how the designers of Giza intentionally arranged these massive structures to create an astronomical timeline recording catastrophic events in the past as well as warning later generations of the precise times of future catastrophes. They reveal how the Old Kingdom pyramids of Giza were created, not as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens, but as “recovery vaults” to ensure the rebirth of the Kingdom of Egypt after a global disaster by acting as storehouses for ancient Egyptian culture--its tools, seeds, art, and sacred texts. Through the use of photos, maps, and diagrams of the Giza plateau, the authors explain in detail how the angles and geometry of the Great Pyramid align with the stars of Orion’s Belt to encode an important message: that changes in the tilt of the world’s axis have occurred in the remote past, most recently in 3980 BCE, and will occur again in the near future. Highlighting the ubiquitous appearance of 23.5-degree angles--the most important of the precessional angles encoded in the Giza pyramids--in classic works of art, including the work of Leonardo da Vinci and portraits of John the Baptist and George Washington, the authors reveal how this angle, the Great Pyramid, and its fateful message are tied to Freemasonry and other secret societies. Concluding with the remarkable revelation triggered by the myth of Osiris that there may be an as-yet-undiscovered 14th “recovery vault” on the Giza plateau, Creighton and Osborn show that the prophecy of Giza is a message of first importance to our own civilization.
A collection of essays based on the latest historical research and archeological discoveries surveys the culture and religion of ancient Egypt.
Exciting historical fiction set in Ancient Egypt! It's 2517 BC and Pharaoh Khafre is building a great pyramid at Giza to rival those built by his predecessors. He is also making plans for what will become one of the most famous and iconic monuments in history -- the Sphinx. But Khafre has enemies and division in his workforce. Among the labourers in his employ is one 12-year-old boy -- Nebka. Nebka has his own reasons for hating the pyramids and wanting to rebel. But his rebellion could have drastic consequences for those closest to him.
A firsthand, behind-the-scene account of the controversies surrounding modern explorations at Giza • Investigates the recent scandals at Giza and claims of secret excavations and tunneling inside the Great Pyramid • Reveals the historical evidence in support of secret chambers in the Great Pyramid and beneath the Great Sphinx • Exposes the secret agendas behind the latest explorations on the Giza plateau Since 1993 Robert Bauval has been embroiled in the many controversies involving the search for the lost treasures of the pyramid builders and the quest for the legendary Hall of Records of Atlantis. The strange but true story that he unfolds implicates American business moguls, the prestigious National Geographic Society, several Ivy League universities, the Edgar Cayce Foundation, the Freemasons, Christian fundamentalists, Zionists, and the Egyptian government. In this fully updated edition of Secret Chamber, including new color photographs, Robert Bauval pursues his in-depth investigation of clandestine events at Giza and the role played by the controversial ex-Minister of Antiquities Dr. Zahi Hawass. What lies behind the mysterious doors at the end of the star shafts in the Great Pyramid? What do the mysterious inscriptions found behind the Gantenbrink door mean? What is the real purpose of the Relief Chambers and the red ochre “graffiti” in them? Who is behind the secretly tunneling and excavating in these chambers, and why? Is there really a hidden Hall of Records from Atlantis beneath the Great Sphinx? Is the Great Pyramid just a tomb or does it serve a higher purpose involving a lost science of immortality? Why do the ancient texts ascribe the Pyramid’s design to the supreme god of wisdom Thoth, the writer of the fabled Books of Hermes? Will the Great Pyramid prove to be the “missing link” to our true origins or a “metaphysical machine” to access the world beyond? Providing a firsthand account of the strange events that have taken place at the Giza plateau in the last three decades, Bauval reveals the hidden agendas behind these events and raises important questions about the meaning of Egypt’s ancient structures and the very origins of civilization.
This comprehensive three-volume set marks the publication of the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, held in Cairo in 2000. This massive and impressive 1693-page work encompasses the research of over 350 of the world's leading Egyptologists--writing in English, French, or German--and contains over 600 illustrations. A dedicated team of editors, proofreaders, and designers worked hard for three years to bring all the disparate elements of this publication--including photographs, tables, graphs, hieroglyphs, hieratic script, and Greek, Arabic, Coptic, and Hebrew fonts--together to create a work that is a benchmark in Egyptological publishing. Organized thematically to reflect the breadth and depth of the material presented at the Congress, these papers provide a survey of current Egyptological research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The proceedings include the eight 'Millennium Debates' led by esteemed Egyptologists, addressing key issues in the field, as well as nearly every paper presented at the Congress. The 248 papers cover the whole spectrum of Egyptological research, and contain many photographs, maps, and plans, that are published here for the first time. Grouped under the themes of archaeology, history, religion, language, conservation, and museology, these contributions together form the most comprehensive picture of Egyptology today. Contributors include: John Baines, Zahi Hawass, Antonio Loprieno, William J. Murnane, Aly Radwan, Donald Redford, Edna Russmann, Helmut Satzinger, Regine Schulz, W. Kelly Simpson, Hourig Sourouzian, Herman te Velde, Kent Weeks

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