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The phenomenon of collusive international agreements (cartels) became widespread in the 1930s. At that time, attempts to control production and prices were mainly the prerogative of multinational firms operating in the developing (then colonized) world. The "modern era" of cartels began in the 1960s, when the governments of developing nations began to participate in commodity agreements to achieve increases and stability in the world price of their commodities. This book is principally concerned with the modern era of cartels. It goes beyond the singular example of petroleum and OPEC to examine the structure of international commodity markets for bauxite (aluminum ore), cocoa, coffee, rubber, sugar, and tin, and the conditions that led to the formation of cartels in those markets during the latter half of the twentieth century. Specifically, the work focuses on four major aspects of international commodity markets: patterns of production and consumption; economic dislocations to both importers and exporters due to price fluctuations; the formation of cartels as a solution to weak and variable commodity prices; and the likely effects arising from tightening raw material markets. The book concludes with a detailed examination of what the future holds for each of the cartels, and what role technology, 24-hour market trading, and decreasing foreign direct investment in producing countries will have on the management of commodity markets.
The relative share of natural rubber in the world's total rubber consumption had been decreasing from 75 percent in 1948- 1949 to 44.4 percent in 1965. Since the production of natural rubber has been rising over the same period, some predictions have been made indicating that there will be a surplus of production over consumption of natural rubber in the near future. In the world output of natural rubber industry, Thailand ranks third, being surpassed only by Malaysia and Indonesia. Of all the exports of Thailand, rubber ranks second in value and is exceeded only by rice. Almost all of the rubber plantations are less than 8 acres in size and the prewar stock will give a low yield. The purpose of this study is to evaluate such predictions. An attempt is also made to show that the rising relative share of synthetic rubber in the world's total rubber consumption has been primarily due to the inability of the producers of natural rubber to increase supply in pace with the increasing demand for rubber and with the technological advances in the synthetic rubber industry. The study revealed that the United States and Western Europe can be expected to continue to exercise a great influence in the future rubber market as the industrial consumers absorb nearly 50 percent of the world's total rubber consumption. In addition, the United States is expected to play a vital role as the major producer of synthetic rubber, which appears to be a critically important factor in determining the future prospects regarding the demand for natural rubber. It is concluded that the techniques of replanting and new planting or both, using the best available high yielding clones would enable natural rubber producers to reduce the cost of production enough to meet the keen price competition from synthetic rubber. In the face of the threatening competition from synthetic rubber, the success of the natural rubber industry may be measured by the extent of realization of effective and unremitting efforts by the natural rubber industry. The future of the natural rubber industry in Thailand, then, depends first on how fast production could be stepped up; secondly how fast the cost of production could be reduced by replanting with high yielding clone; and thirdly on the world price of natural rubber. The projection of natural rubber production during the year 1970 indicates that all rubber produced will be sold. Synthetic rubber will be used to meet excess demand for new rubber during this period. But some surplus of the natural rubber will occur during the year 1975. The future of the natural rubber industry depends to a large degree on lowered costs of production with replanting and planting with high yielding trees, and improving the quality and marketing. In conclusion, the planting scheme now being undertaken in the natural rubber producing countries, will be of advantage not only at the present but also in the future.
The Turkish economy is very dynamic and growing at phenomenal speeds. For instance, Turkey’s first quarter GDP growth rate was 11 percent in 2011. This growth brings its own risks and benefits. The lessons learned from surviving and thriving in such an environment can be applied to supply chains in any country. Packed with interesting and timely examples from industries such as automotive, airline, and manufacturing, Risk Intelligent Supply Chains: How Leading Turkish Companies Thrive in the Age of Fragility presents strategic insights from various leading Turkish companies regarding their management of supply chain risks. Çağrı Haksöz brings the risk intelligent supply chain (RISC) concept to life for the first time. It answers the question of how to become a risk intelligent supply chain. He proposes the I-Quartet Model with four essential roles "Integrator, Inquirer, Improviser, and Ingenious," that any supply chain network must play to become risk intelligent. The book also presents never-before-published cases and practices of leading Turkish companies that thrive globally in the age of fragility with their supply chain risk intelligence. While providing real-life examples, the book also shares insights obtained in various scientific disciplines. It provides not only an industry focus but also details numerous industry approaches, analyzing their similarities and differences in a manner that allows each industry to learn from the other.
World Bank Technical Paper No. 359. As the telecommunications sector evolves toward a more competitive environment in which the private actors become the main players, it is essential to develop policies that will reduce the disparities between urban and rural telecommunications services. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the technical and financial parameters that have to be considered in formulating such policies. It presents an array of options for commercial operation of rural telecommunications and challenges the general perception that rural telecommunications services are unprofitable. It demonstrates that services can be economically delivered to rural areas at affordable prices while simultaneously providing reasonable financial returns to investors. A planning tool kit is included that assists in the design of the various options.
Overview of the main findings and trade issues; Main food security findings and issues; Basic food and feed crops; Livestock products; Tropical beverage crops and fruits; Agricultural raw materials; Methodological.

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