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In a world characterized, on the one hand, by globalized trade and commerce, and, on the other, by deteriorating judicial services, arbitration has become the dispute resolution mechanism of choice in cross-border commercial transactions. International arbitration not only paves the way for parties to avoid State courts, it also facilitates the transnational enforceability of awards that are far more effective than the enforceability of State court judgments. The major instrument is the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention) of June 10, 1958, which entered into force one year after. Since then, the New York Convention has been ratified by 144 States, including all the important trading nations. For good reason, the New York Convention is labeled the Magna Carta of international arbitration. The courts of any contracting State are required "to give effect to an agreement to arbitrate when seized of an action in a matter covered by an arbitration agreement and also to recognize and enforce awards made in other States, subject to specific limited exceptions" (UNCITRAL). In this book, the 16 articles of the Convention are dealt with in an article-by-article analysis, following a clear structure which swiftly guides the reader to the issue that he or she is engaged with. Given the New York Convention's global relevance, it follows that potential users of the Convention are in need of guidance as to how to apply it. The primary readers of this book will be: lawyers seeking (or defending against) recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards worldwide, State court judges applying the Convention in recognition proceedings, and in-house lawyers in large and/or multinational enterprises dealing with transnational dispute resolution.
The Guide on the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards provides a detailed analysis of the judicial interpretation and application of the New York Convention by reference to case law from 45 Contracting States. The Guide, and the newyorkconvention1958.org website which supplements it, will become an essential tool that benefits all those involved in the interpretation and application of the New York Convention.
Worldwide interest in the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards has never been higher, and the New York Convention of 1958, currently adhered to by 159 States including the major trading nations, remains the most successful treaty in this area of commercial law. This incomparable book, marking the Convention’s 60th anniversary, provides a fully updated analysis of the Convention’s application from international, comparative, and national perspectives. Drawing on a global conference held in Seville in April 2018 that was actively supported by UNCITRAL, the book’s 27 chapters, by highly qualified international practitioners and academics from different jurisdictions, address the subject with critical eyes, well aware of current developments and future challenges in the field of arbitration. Among the issues and topics covered are the following: Multi-tiered dispute resolution clauses. Applicability of the UN Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts. Complexities of enforcing orders determined by software. Enforcement of annulled awards. European Union law and the New York Convention. Enforcing awards against States and State entities. Sovereign immunity as a ground to refuse compliance with investor-State awards; Enforcement against non-signatories. Public policy exception. Arbitrating and enforcing foreign awards in specific countries and regions, including China, sub-Saharan Africa, and the ASEAN countries. Ample reference is made throughout to leading cases and practice. Familiarity with the intricacies of the New York Convention, as the most universally acknowledged framework in which cross-border economic exchanges can flourish, is essential for judges, practitioners, legal staff, business people, and scholars working with or applying international commercial arbitration anywhere in the world. This book’s combination of highly thought-provoking topics and the depth with which they are addressed will prove invaluable to all interested parties
In 2014, the global economic system celebrates two anniversaries: Seventy years ago, on 22 July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Worldbank) were adopted. Since then the global financial and monetary system underwent significant policy changes, but the institutional framework remained the same. More recently, twenty years ago, on 15 April 1994, the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations was signed and its key component, the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization, entered into force on 1 January 1995. Even though the beginning of the multilateral trading system dates back to the late 1940s, the founding of the WTO constitutes a significant institutional reform which marks the beginning of a new era. Anniversaries are usually moments of celebration. However, even a superficial observer will notice that neither the current international financial and monetary regime nor the international trade regime is in a stage which invites celebration. Instead, both are facing difficult and fundamental challenges to their very existence from the outside but also from within. So while there may be no time to celebrate, anniversaries are also often used for reflection about the past and the future. Hence, EYIEL 5 (2014) considers these two anniversaries ample moments to reflect on the legacy and the current status of the main two pillars of International Economic Law in its Part one. Part two of EYIEL 5 (2014) brings together contributions on the EU’s Deep Trade Agenda, on Current Approaches to the International Investment Regime in South America, on the Multilayered System of Regional Economic Integration in West Africa and on the Tripartite Free Trade Area, as well as on India and her Trade Agreements. Part three contains treatises of developments in the World Customs Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization and in International Investment Law. After the book reviews in Part four, EYIEL 5 (2014) is complemented with an Annex containing the Case (on exchange-rate manipulation and crisis-caused guarantees to financial institutions) and the Best Submissions of the 11th EMC2 ELSA WTO Moot Court Competition (of the Harvard team for the complainant and the Leuven team for the respondent). The case not only addresses issues of current interest but also links the subjects of our two special focusses nicely together.
The existing literature on the substantive and procedural aspects of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) relies heavily on investment treaty arbitration decisions as a source of law. What is missing is a comprehensive, analytical review of state practice. This volume fills this gap, providing detailed analyses of the investment treaty policy and practice of nineteen leading capital-exporting states and emerging market economies. The authors are leading experts in government, academia, and private legal practice, and their chapters are largely based on primary source materials. Each chapter provides a description of the regulatory or policy framework governing foreign investment (both inflows and outflows) with a historical presentation of the state's Model BIT; an examination of internal government processes and practices relating to treaty negotiation, conclusion, ratification and record-keeping; and a detailed article-by-article analytical commentary of the state's Model BIT, elucidating the policy behind each provision and highlighting the ways in which the actual investment treaty practice of that state deviates from this standard text. This commentary is supplemented by the case law relevant to that state's investment treaties. This commentary will be of immense assistance to counsel and arbitrators engaged in arguing and determining the proper interpretation of BITs and investment chapters in Free Trade Agreements, and to government officials and scholars engaged in BIT policy formulation and implementation. It will serve as a standard resource for legal practitioners, scholars, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the field of international investment policy, law, and arbitration.
International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law. The first part of the book focuses on the 'infrastructure' of the investment regime or, more specifically, on the structural arrangements that have been developed to manage foreign investment transactions and the potential disputes arising from them. The second part of the book identifies the common conceptual bases of an array of seemingly unconnected practical problems in order to clarify the main stakes and offer balanced solutions. The third part addresses the main sources of 'regime stress' as well as the main legal mechanisms available to manage such challenges to the operation of the regime. Overall, the book offers a thorough investigation of the conflicting theoretical positions underlying international investment law, testing their worth by reference to concrete issues that have arisen in the jurisprudence. It demonstrates that many of the most important practical questions arising in practice can be addressed by a carefully dosed resort to theory.
In international arbitration as practiced today, few issues are as controversial and hotly debated as the foreign enforcement of an arbitral award that has been annulled in its originating jurisdiction. As more and more jurisdictions challenge such annulments, the issue has inevitably attracted the intense scrutiny of practitioners and scholars. Now, in the first book written on the subject--and a major work unlikely to be superseded for quite some time--the international practitioner and scholar Dr. Hamid G. Gharavi provides a keen, in-depth analysis of the sources, legal and practical grounds, and possible solutions of the problem, particularly as it affects international business transactions in the global economy. Dr Gharavi analyzes the relevant provisions in all major international arbitration conventions, as well as national laws on the annulment and enforcement of arbitral awards in force in more than fifty different countries. Among the book's most notable features are the following: invaluable information on, and an in-depth analysis of, the travaux pr?paratoires of the New York Convention pertaining to the articulation of annulment/enforcement controls; the effects of the cultural, judicial, and legal diversity of states; and clear elucidation of the interests that often separate North from South in the practice of arbitration. With detailed attention to theoretical and practical perspectives--especially as they reveal the dangers to which the enforcement of annulled awards can subject international business operators-- Dr Gharavi arrives, after consideration of all interests, at a global resolution aiming to establish an effective and harmonious international legal framework for the control of awards in accordance with the nature and mission of arbitration.

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