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This book deals with the dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle that are occurring in the developing world as a result of globalization, and their impact on human healt. The Editors have assembled a leading group of scientists in teh fields of economics, population sciences, international health, medicine, nutrition and food sciences, to address each of the key issues related to the changes in demographic trends, food production and marketing, and disease patterns in the developing world. The Nutrition Transition provides essential information to understand the far-reaching effects that global economic, social and cultural trends are having on diet-related disease patersin in countries of transition. Contains numerous illustrative figures and tables Two case studies included-on China and Brazil Foreword written by Nevin Scrimshaw, recipient of the World Food Prize
Many developing countries are currently undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. This transition is characterized by changes in dietary habits towards more energy-dense, often processed foods with high fat and sugar contents, and more sedentary lifestyles. As a result, overweight and obesity rates have increased. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. In 2008, 34% of all adults were overweight or obese. For children under five, an estimated 6.6% were either overweight or obese in 2011, an increase from 4.5% in 1990. At the same time, undernutrition rates are still high. Globall...
Modernization and urbanization have led to startling changes in dietary and lifestyle habits across the globe. One interpretation of this process of changing food habits is called the nutrition transition, which describes how modern diets high in sugars, salts, fats and processed foods are leading to unprecedented rates of non-communicable diseases like overweight, obesity, diabetes and heart disease; the nutrition transition also has serious implications for the environment. The nutrition transition in Ecuador is a pertinent dilemma considering that over the past ten years, non-communicable diseases have been top killers in the country. While attempts to address the issue in Ecuador have been disproportionately quantitative in design, this investigation presents an ethnographic approach, taking into careful consideration urban-rural dynamics, socioeconomic factors, generation, and gender. Interviews and observations were carried out in one rural family and one urban family who have members suffering from diabetes, a non-communicable disease. Additionally, current programs and policies that are responding to the nutrition transition in Ecuador are reviewed.
The nutrition transition is a global phenomenon in which diets have become increasingly westernized and processed while lifestyles have shifted from labor intensive to sedentary, largely on account of the advent of technology, globalization n and urbanization. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, very little is known regarding how the nutrition transition has affected the risk of comorbid chronic diseases among indigenous Kichwas communities in Ecuador. Aims of this study are : 1) Identify specific health outcomes (such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol) associated with the lifestyle risk factors of the nutrition transition among the Andean Kichwas indigenous population; 2) Explore the sociocultural factors (such as gender roles, culinary traditions, urbanization and globalization) which influence dietary behavior and food choices within Kichwas indigenous households; 3) Assess the construct relevance of the Nutrition Transition Questionnaire (NTQ), a pilot instrument designed to measure key constructs of the nutrition transition within indigenous Kichwas Andean households. The current study is a convergent parallel mixed methods design that consists of two components: 1) Secondary data analysis of the internal reliability of the Nutrition Transition Questionnaire, a pilot instrument designed to assess obesogenic lifestyles at the individual and household levels; 2) Primary ethnographic qualitative data collection among the Kichwas community residing in the Imbabura province of Ecuador. Thirty-four interviews were conducted with nutritional gatekeepers (i.e. women who make the majority of household dietary decisions) to explore lifestyle trends related to diet and exercise within the Kichwas community. Twenty-five intercept interviews were conducted at various food vending locations throughout the community. Internal reliability of the NTQ was assessed using Cronbachs alpha and inter-item correlations while qualitative data were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Chronic disease occurrence in the sample was also assessed for diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol and obesity. Results suggest that key constructs in the Nutrition Transition Questionnaire are relevant to assessing lifestyle risk and protection regarding chronic disease. Main qualitative themes include gender roles within food preparation; the impact of collective culture upon food choices and household dietary behavior; and the protection offered by access to home gardens. The discussion highlights several differences between this study population and other indigenous populations. It also posits that a new emergent theory, Geo-Nomics theory, can provide a useful future tool in framing additional ethnographic nutrition transition research. The conclusion indicates this studys most useful contributions to the literature, which include the development of a potential thermos intervention to decrease fast food consumption when Kichwas men commute far from home to work.
The dietary behaviors and body image attitudes of the people of developing nations are quickly changing as many of these countries experience a nutrition transition. This transition is characterized by a shift from the traditional diet to one influenced by the Western world. There are many components to the nutrition transition, but the two main forces are cultural (including Western media) and economic influences that bring about the shifts in behavior and attitude. This study will add to the research on the nutrition transition by examining data from a non-representative sample of 199 female adolescents in Jordan. There are two hypotheses for this study. First is that the nutrition transition exists within this population and will be supported with high rates of restrained eating, as found in past research involving older Jordanian females. Second, media influence will help to explain the nutrition transition within this population. A linear regression was run using SPSS version 21.0 to assess the significance of the variables representing the nutrition transition. Significant results for the IES Total and the MFES Emotional scale were found suggesting that programming to promote intuitive eating within the population could be helpful in preventing further progression of the nutrition transition. Possibilities for future research are also discussed.
Estimating future demand for food is a critical aspect of global food security analyses. The process linking dietary changes to wealth is known as the nutrition transition and presents well-identified features that help to predict consumption changes in poor countries. This study proposes to represent the nutrition transition with a nonhomothetic, flexible-in-income, demand system, known as the Modified Implicitly Directly Additive Demand System (MAIDADS). The resulting model is transparent and estimated statistically based on cross-sectional information from FAOSTAT the statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. It captures the main features of the nutrition transition: rise in demand for calories associated with income growth; diversification of diets away from starchy staples; and a large increase in caloric demand for animal-based products, fats, and sweeteners. The estimated model is used to project food demand between 2010 and 2050 based on a set of plausible futures (trend projections and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios). The main results of these projections are as follows: (1) global food demand will increase by 46 percent, less than half the growth in the previous four decades; (2) this growth will be attributable mainly to lower-middle-income and low-income countries; (3) the structure of global food demand will change over the period, with a 95 percent increase in demand for animal-based calories and a much smaller 18 percent increase in demand for starchy staples; and (4) the analysis of a range of population and income projections reveals important uncertainties depending on the scenario, the projected increases in demand for animal-based and vegetal-based calories range from 78 to 109 percent and from 20 to 42 percent, respectively.
This monograph describes a series of studies examining the prevalence and characteristics of obesity and its related metabolic diseases in China, where urbanization and socioeconomic development are occurring at a dramatic pace.
Malnutrition in some form impacts nearly one-third of the global population. Across the world, countries are undergoing the "nutrition transition" from traditional and largely unprocessed diets to Western-style, energy-dense diets. At the same time, rates of overweight and obesity and diet-related chronic diseases continue to climb. Ultra-processed foods (UPF), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and vegetable oils are three of the foods driving the nutrition transition. This dissertation calculates changes in the global food supply between 1961 and 2013 and quantifies the influence of UPF and SSB (as measured through sales) on national nutrient supplies between 2005 and 2013 and trends in adult and child and adolescent BMI, overweight, and obesity between 2005 and 2015. Globally, the fatty acid (FA) supply has grown larger and more heavily weighted towards omega-6 FA, while growing less diverse as a result of vegetable oil production. UPF and SSB sales are associated with country nutrient supplies that are higher in calories, carbohydrates, and total fat. Sales also predict increases in average BMI for most groups and increases in overweight and obesity prevalence for some groups. This national-level analysis strengthens the argument for global and national level regulation of UPF and SSB.
Nested in the Indian Ocean, Mauritius hosts a multi- cultural population, consisting of Asian Indians, Creoles - predominantly of African ancestry - and Sino-Mauritians of Chinese descent. Following its independence, the country gradually flourished from a low income, agricultural-based economy to an export-oriented upper-middle income nation which boasts one of the most remarkable economic track record in sub-Saharan Africa. Beyond economic prosperity, these changes also triggered shifts in dietary patterns and levels of nutrition-related chronic diseases reached unprecedented highs. Indeed, with its large population of Asian descent, Mauritius has one of the highest incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the World. This book contemplates the nutrition transition ("Westernisation of diet") that Mauritius has been undergoing as a consequence of rapid modernisation. Dietary patterns and concurrent changes in prevalence of chronic diseases - Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes - typically associated with such a transition are examined.
Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Second Edition is a thorough revision and 20% expansion of the 1998 release, reflecting the continuing scientific advances in the field of human nutrition. Now a four-volume set, nearly 300 articles with concise, up-to-date information are complemented by an award-winning indexing system. Included is expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, clinical nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders. Virtually everyone will find the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition an easy-to-use resource making it an ideal reference choice for both the professional and the non-professional alike. Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. FEATURES OF SECOND PRINT EDITION Now a four-volume set with over 250 articles Expanded coverage of epidemiology of diet-related diseases, functional foods, food safety, and gastrointestinal disorders, among other topics ONLINE FEATURES AND FUNCTIONALITIES Browse the whole work by volume, authors or article titles Full and extensive subject index can be searched or browsed online, and takes you directly to the indexed paragraph, section, figure or table Basic and advanced search functionality across the entire work or by specific volume Users can build, save and re-run seraches, as well as combine saved searches Extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking from biliographic references to primary-source material, increasing the scope of your research rapidly and effectively All articles available as full-text HTML files, or as PDF files that can be viewed, downloaded or printed in their original format
The current eating patterns of mid-adolescents in the Francistown area, in various contexts and situations are described to find out how their current food habits and food choice behaviour reflect the nutrition transition in Botswana. The investigation focuses on the extent to which traditional and Western-orientated foods figure in the diets of these young people. From documenting their current food habits at the same time, it was clear the external environments and the individual’s preferences influence their food choice behaviour. Worldwide, the nutrition transition underlies many public health problems associated with nutrition-related non-communicable diseases like obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Sub-Saharan Africa similarly, experiences a nutrition transition in that a Western-orientated food culture has gradually replaced traditional foods and food patterns. Botswana too reflects the presence of a nutrition transition. As there is limited information on the eating patterns and food-related behaviour of mid-adolescents in Botswana, this study fills a gap in the literature. This explorative, descriptive study followed a quantitative research design. A pretested, self-administered survey questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was developed. In three senior secondary schools in Francistown 242 Form 4 learners completed the questionnaire. Information gathered concerned the current eating patterns of the respondents, the extent of their snack and fast food consumption and their familiarity, preferences and frequency of consumption of traditional foods. Results reflect a change from the traditional meal pattern and its composition to a Western-orientated pattern of three meals a day with in-between meal snacking. Breakfast consisted of either tea and bread, or tea and a soft porridge prepared from sorghum or maize meal. Maize and sorghum continue to be the staple grains. They form part of at least one or more meals a day.
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