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An updated edition of Jacques Pépin's acclaimed account of the events that transformed a chimpanzee virus into a global pandemic.
It is now thirty years since the discovery of AIDS but its origins continue to puzzle doctors and scientists. Inspired by his own experiences working as an infectious diseases physician in Africa, Jacques Pepin looks back to the early twentieth-century events in Africa that triggered the emergence of HIV/AIDS and traces its subsequent development into the most dramatic and destructive epidemic of modern times. He shows how the disease was first transmitted from chimpanzees to man and then how urbanization, prostitution, and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/AIDS and on the lessons that must be learnt if we are to avoid provoking another pandemic in the future.
This volume blows apart the myths about who gets AIDS and shows how these myths are driven by moral and political pressures. It argues that the story of HIV has been distorted by UNAIDS and AIDS activists in order to support the myth of high potential risk of HIV epidemics spreading into the general population.
Sixteen years into the AIDS epidemic, our understandings of the virus, its transmis sion, modes of controlling blood banks and testing are relatively well established. In the last decade, we have also experienced an astonishing amount ofnew social science research ena bling us to better understand concepts like risk taking, gender-related prevention, women's health, and youth psychology,just to mention a few. In almost every country in the world, efforts have been made to respond affirmatively to the challenge of stopping the further spread of HIVI AIDS. Educational interventions have ranged from re-inventing the wheel to innovative programs, using a variety of health educa tion methods. The field of evaluation research now provides us a better understanding of what works and what does not work. Issues relating to human rights, the relationship be tween the affected and the healthlmedical professional communities, and to the inequality in the delivery ofpreventive and educational services are becoming an important part ofthe de bates and discussions in the concerned societies.
Although efforts have been made and continue to be made to reduce the rate of HIV transmission in the U.S. and globally, the rates continue to increase in the majority of countries. In the U.S., members of minority communities remain especially at risk of HIV transmission. An individual’s discovery that he or she has contracted HIV, or that a loved one has contracted the illness, often raises significant issues that necessitate interaction with mental health professionals. Mental Health Practitioner’s Guide to HIV/AIDS serves as a quick desk reference for professionals who may be less familiar with the terminology used in HIV/AIDS care and services.
Offers a narrative historical overview of the AIDS crisis, including the history, global impact, legal and ethical aspects, human side, and political implications of the disease
An insider's view of the scientific errors and controversies the slowed advances in the fight against HIV/AIDS, this book also explains governmental, journal and academic reforms that could help scientists recognize and correct errors faster, so deal more efficiently and effectively with epidemics.
Since the early days of the AIDS epidemic, many bizarre and dangerous hypotheses have been advanced to explain the origins of the disease. In this compelling book, Nicoli Nattrass explores the social and political factors prolonging the erroneous belief that the American government manufactured the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to be used as a biological weapon, as well as the myth's consequences for behavior, especially within African American and black South African communities. Contemporary AIDS denialism, the belief that HIV is harmless and that antiretroviral drugs are the true cause of AIDS, is a more insidious AIDS conspiracy theory. Advocates of this position make a "conspiratorial move" against HIV science by implying its methods cannot be trusted and that untested, alternative therapies are safer than antiretrovirals. These claims are genuinely life-threatening, as tragically demonstrated in South Africa when the delay of antiretroviral treatment resulted in nearly 333,000 AIDS deaths and 180,000 HIV infections—a tragedy of stunning proportions. Nattrass identifies four symbolically powerful figures ensuring the lifespan of AIDS denialism: the hero scientist (dissident scientists who lend credibility to the movement); the cultropreneur (alternative therapists who exploit the conspiratorial move as a marketing mechanism); the living icon (individuals who claim to be living proof of AIDS denialism's legitimacy); and the praise-singer (journalists who broadcast movement messages to the public). Nattrass also describes how pro-science activists have fought back by deploying empirical evidence and political credibility to resist AIDS conspiracy theories, which is part of the crucial project to defend evidence-based medicine.
Although morbidity among HIV/AIDS victims has decreased, the rate of new infections has remained steady for several years, substantially increasing the likelihood that this epidemic will continue and expand as a concern for social workers and their clientele, both of whom will need to be kept informed of the complex laws governing the milieu and the consequences of the disease. This is certainly the case with its spread throughout Asia and Africa. In this new work, the author draws upon statutes and court decisions from across the United States to provide a comprehensive and current picture of the many facets of HIV/AIDS law, including health policy; confidentiality; privacy; bioethics; the workplace; and criminal law and corrections. The volume of legal, medical, social science, and popular literature pertaining to HIV/AIDS that has been published over the past two decades is staggering. Hence, any addition to this collection needs some justification. What Dickson offers is different from what has preceded. Rather than one more contribution to the extensive legal or social science literature, this book attempts to integrate the perspectives from two fields: law and social work. The hope is that this will give social workers, practitioners, and teachers a better understanding of one of the major issues that may face them in their work with patients and clients every day. To date, although there is extensive HIV and AIDS-related literature in social work and the social sciences, it is primarily focused on social work practice issues. Where law has been introduced in these works, it often is narrow in focus and, given the rapid changes in the field, no longer up to date. This book does not purport to discuss all legal issues in all jurisdictions relating to HIV/AIDS, but rather to choose selectively those that have particular relevance for social work and social policy. The author has placed reliance on those published medical works cited with approval in the legal and social science literature. This is a seminal work on the relationship of law, medicine, and ethics. Donald T. Dickson is professor in the School of Social Work at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, in New Brunswick.
A New York Times bestseller The definitive account of the infectious diseases threatening humanity by Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative journalist Laurie Garrett "Prodigiously researched . . . A frightening vision of the future and a deeply unsettling one." —Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times After decades spent assuming that the conquest of infectious disease was imminent, people on all continents now find themselves besieged by AIDS, drug-resistant tuberculosis, cholera that defies chlorine water treatment, and exotic viruses that can kill in a matter of hours. Relying on extensive interviews with leading experts in virology, molecular biology, disease ecology, and medicine, as well as field research in sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, Central America, and the United States, Laurie Garrett's The Coming Plague takes readers from the savannas of eastern Bolivia to the rain forests of the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo on a harrowing, fifty year journey through the history of our battles with microbes. This book is a work of investigative reportage like no other and a wake-up call to a world that has become complacent in the face of infectious disease—one that offers a sobering and prescient warning about the dangers of ignoring the coming plague.
Advances in DNA sequencing and phylogenetic inference have created powerful methods to investigate many dangerous human viruses. The Molecular Epidemiology Of Viruses provides a comprehensive introduction to the use of genetic methods in molecular epidemiology and in-depth examples of analyses from many viruses. Key topics included in this book are: -Why genetic methods to track epidemiology are useful and how they can be used in disease control; -The importance of sample design; -DNA sequencing and other methods for genetic characterization; - Genetic databases and their function as reference banks and information centers; - How genetic analysis has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of both RNA and DNA viruses; - How molecular techniques have been applied to monitor the spread of hepatitis viruses; - In depth discussions of additional viruses including influenza, polio, human T-cell lymphotropic viruses, rabies, rotavirus, measles and respiratory syncytial virus, human papilloma virus, flavi viruses, hantaviruses, and potentially new and emerging human viruses. This book is of interest to researchers in the fields of infectious disease, virology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and molecular biology as well as anyone interested in tracking the spread of disease.
Gabriele Griffin argues that the explosion of HIV/AIDS into highly visible cultural forms, from movies, theatre, activist interventions, and art from the late-1980s to the mid-1990s has been replaced by a retreat to artisitic invisibility.
The image of the West looms large in the American imagination. Yet the history of American Jewry and particularly of American Jewish women—has been heavily weighted toward the East. Jewish Women Pioneering the Frontier Trail rectifies this omission as the first full book to trace the history and contributions of Jewish women in the American West. In many ways, the Jewish experience in the West was distinct. Given the still-forming social landscape, beginning with the 1848 Gold Rush, Jews were able to integrate more fully into local communities than they had in the East. Jewish women in the West took advantage of the unsettled nature of the region to “open new doors” for themselves in the public sphere in ways often not yet possible elsewhere in the country. Women were crucial to the survival of early communities, and made distinct contributions not only in shaping Jewish communal life but outside the Jewish community as well. Western Jewish women's level of involvement at the vanguard of social welfare and progressive reform, commerce, politics, and higher education and the professions is striking given their relatively small numbers. This engaging work—full of stories from the memoirs and records of Jewish pioneer women—illuminates the pivotal role these women played in settling America's Western frontier.
First published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
By drawing on the latest discoveries in virology, microbiology, and immunology, Mirko Grmek depicts the AIDS epidemic not as an isolated incident but as part of the long, but far from peaceful, coexistence of humans and viruses.
The governance of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has come to represent a multi-faceted and complex operation in which the World Bank has set and sustained the global agenda for by the World Bank. The governance of HIV/ AIDS. Through economic incentive they have restructured the is a political foundations of countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the pursuit of change in state, project that seeks to embed liberal practice through individual, state, and societal community behaviour. At the heart of this practice is the drive to impose blueprint neoliberal market-based solutions on a personal-global issue. This book unravels how the Bank’s good governance agenda and commitment to participation, ownership and transparency manifests itself in practice, through the Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP), and crucially how it is pushing an agenda that sees a shift in both global health interventions and state configuration in sub-Saharan Africa. The book considers the mechanisms used by the Bank – and the problems therein – to engage the state, civil society and the individual in responding to the HIV/AIDS crisis, and how these mechanisms have been exported to other global projects such as the Global Fund and UNAIDS. Harman argues in conclusion that not only has the Bank set the global agenda for HIV/AIDS, but underpinning this is a wider commitment to liberal governance reform through neoliberal incentive. Making an important contribution to our understanding of global governance and international politics, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of politics, international political economy, international relations, development studies and civil society.

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