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Resistance arteries play a crucial role in controlling resistance to blood flow and consequently blood pressure, as well as maintaining a constant supply of blood to tissues such as heart, kidney and brain. With the development of miniaturised techniques interest has heightened and produced a plethora of investigations concentrated on pieces of tissue weighing but a few micrograms. This volume presents a synthesis of these approaches, resulting in the most comprehensive current guide to all aspects of resistance vessel physiology and pharmacology presently available. The increasing importance of resistance artery structure as a determinate of peripheral resistance is recognised. Many contributions are concerned with the myogenic response - the ability of a blood vessel to contract when the intravascular pressure is raised. An up-to-date guide to current knowledge of the endothelial function, both in modulating this response and biochemical aspects of smooth muscle contraction is given. Important concensus is also established concerning the existence of receptor-operated calcium channels, in addition to voltage dependent calcium channels.
This textbook focuses on the vascular biology and physiology that underlie vascular disorders in clinical medicine. Vascular biomedicine is a rapidly growing field as new molecular mechanisms of vascular health and disease are unraveled. Many of the major cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke and vascular dementia are diseases of the vasculature. In addition vascular injury underpins conditions like kidney failure and cardiovascular complications of diabetes. This field is truly multidisciplinary involving scientists in many domains such as molecular and vascular biology, cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology and immunology and inflammation. Clinically, specialists across multiple disciplines are involved in the management of patients with vascular disorders, including cardiologists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, neurologists and vascular surgeons. This book covers a wide range of topics and provides an overview of the discipline of vascular biomedicine without aiming at in-depth reviews, but rather offering up-to-date knowledge organized in concise and structured chapters, with key points and pertinent references. The structure of the content provides an integrative and translational approach from basic science (e.g. stem cells) to clinical medicine (e.g. cardiovascular disease). The content of this book is targeted to those who are new in the field of vascular biology and vascular medicine and is ideal for medical students, graduate and postgraduate students, clinical fellows and academic clinicians with an interest in the vascular biology and physiology of cardiovascular disease and related pathologies.
The Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension reflects emerging concepts that have the potential to impact diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hypertension. Updating all material, this new edition also delves into a number of areas that have received heightened interest in recent years or have become a matter of debate due to the controversial interpretation of the available data. FEATURES Reflects emerging concepts impacting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches Explores background, history, epidemiology, and risk factors Describes pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and medical treatments Examines hypertension in special populations and treatment
Braunwald’s Heart Disease remains your indispensable source for definitive, state-of-the-art answers on every aspect of contemporary cardiology. Edited by Drs. Robert O. Bonow, Douglas L. Mann, Douglas P. Zipes, and Peter Libby, this dynamic, multimedia reference helps you apply the most recent knowledge in molecular biology and genetics, imaging, pharmacology, interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, and much more. Weekly updates online, personally selected by Dr. Braunwald, continuously keep you current on the most important new developments affecting your practice. Enhanced premium online content includes new dynamic cardiac imaging videos, heart sound recordings, and podcasts. With sweeping updates throughout, and contributions from a "who’s who" of global cardiology, Braunwald’s is the cornerstone of effective practice. Continuously access the most important new developments affecting your practice with weekly updates personally selected by Dr. Braunwald, including focused reviews, "hot off the press" commentaries, and late-breaking clinical trials. Practice with confidence and overcome your toughest challenges with advice from the top minds in cardiology today, who synthesize the entire state of current knowledge and summarize all of the most recent ACC/AHA practice guidelines. Locate the answers you need fast thanks to a user-friendly, full-color design with more than 1,200 color illustrations. Search the complete contents online at www.expertconsult.com. Stay on top of the latest advances in molecular imaging, intravascular ultrasound, cardiovascular regeneration and tissue engineering, device therapy for advanced heart failure, atrial fibrillation management, structural heart disease, Chagasic heart disease, ethics in cardiovascular medicine, the design and conduct of clinical trials, and many other timely topics. Hone your clinical skills with new dynamic cardiac imaging videos, heart sound recordings, and podcasts at www.expertconsult.com.
This fully revised edition of Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology conveys the essential knowledge needed to understand the clinical application of imaging technologies. An ideal tool for all radiology residents and students, it covers all subspecialty areas and current imaging modalities as utilized in neuroradiology, chest, breast, abdominal, musculoskeletal imaging, ultrasound, pediatric imaging, interventional techniques and nuclear radiology. New and expanded topics in this edition include use of diffustion-weighted MR, new contrast agents, breast MR, and current guidelines for biopsy and intervention. Many new images, expanded content, and full-color throughout make the fourth edition of this classic text a comprehensive review that is ideal as a first reader for beginning residents, a reference during rotations, and a vital resource when preparing for the American Board of Radiology examinations. More than just a book, the fourth edition is a complete print and online package. Readers will also have access to fully searchable content from the book, a downloadable image bank containing all images from the text, and study guides for each chapter that outline the key points for every image and table in an accessible format—ideal for study and review. This is the 1 volume set.
MICHEL E. SAFAR and MICHAEL F. O'ROURKE One of the principal problems of hypertension is the precise definition of blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor. Clinicians indicate peak systolic pressure and end diastolic pressure in the brachial artery as the principal criteria for blood pressure measurement. Consequently, these values are as indicators for clinical management and therapeutic adjustment. This used methodology, based on indirect blood pressure measurements at the site of the brachial artery relates only to the highest and lowest pressure in that vessel, and does not give any information of the blood pressure curve itself; this carries more information than peak systolic pressure and end diastolic pressure. As a first step in better analysis of the blood pressure curve, research workers in experimental hypertension defined in addition to peak systolic pressure and end diastolic, another blood pressure value, mean arterial pressure, i. e. the average pressure throughout the cardiac cycle, and about which pressure fluctuates. This is the pressure recorded by Hales [1] and by Poiseuille [2] in their pioneering studies. By application of Poiseuille's Law, this definition of mean arterial pressure led to the concept that increased mean arterial pressure (and therefore hypertension) was related, at any given value of cardiac output, to an increase in vascular resistance, i. e. to a reduc tion in the caliber of the small arteries.
Transport in Biological Media is a solid resource of mathematical models for researchers across a broad range of scientific and engineering problems such as the effects of drug delivery, chemotherapy, or insulin intake to interpret transport experiments in areas of cutting edge biological research. A wide range of emerging theoretical and experimental mathematical methodologies are offered by biological topic to appeal to individual researchers to assist them in solving problems in their specific area of research. Researchers in biology, biophysics, biomathematics, chemistry, engineers and clinical fields specific to transport modeling will find this resource indispensible. Provides detailed mathematical model development to interpret experiments and provides current modeling practices Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications Includes physiological descriptions of models
Through nine outstanding editions, Rutherford's Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy has been the gold standard text in this fast-changing, complex field. Published in association with the Society for Vascular Surgery, this state-of-the-art reference by Drs. Anton N. Sidawy and Bruce A. Perler is a must-have for vascular surgeons, interventionalists, vascular medicine specialists, and trainees, as well as general surgeons, interventional radiologists, and cardiologists that depend upon "Rutherford’s" in their practice. It offers authoritative guidance from the most respected and innovative global thought leaders and clinical and basic science experts in the diagnosis and treatment of circulatory disease. Incorporates medical, endovascular, and surgical treatment, as well as diagnostic techniques, decision making, and fundamental vascular biology. Features all vascular imaging techniques, offering a non-invasive evaluation of both the morphology and hemodynamics of the vascular system. Provides unparalleled insight from multidisciplinary leaders worldwide, who share their expertise on the most appropriate contemporary and future treatment of circulatory disease. Employs a full-color layout and images so you can view clinical and physical findings and operative techniques more vividly. Includes 40 new chapters incorporating a shorter, more focused format with a summary for each chapter that provides a quick access to key information – ideal for consultation situations as well as daily practice. Some of these chapters are organized in new sections dedicated to open operative exposure and vessel dissection techniques, diabetic foot, Pediatric Vascular Disease, and practice management issues; areas in the specialty that clinicians frequently face but seldom detailed in other vascular texts nor in earlier Rutherford editions. Covers hot topics such as endovascular therapy of aortic arch and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm disease, including the evolving management of aortic dissections.
Potassium channels (K+) are membrane-spanning proteins which serve many important functions and are a hotly debated topic in physiology. This book highlights the latest discoveries on the role of K+ channels in the heart and blood vessels in normal physiology and a variety of disease states.
The advances made in vascular biology in the last 25 years have considerably changed the perception that one could have of the endothelial cells. Once considered as a diffusion barrier preventing the access of the blood cells to the vascular matrix, the endothelium is now recognized as playing a major role in the control of blood fluidity, platelet aggregation, and vascular tone, but also in immunology, inflammation, angiogenesis, and for serving as a metabolizing and an endocrine organ. -- from the preface Cardiovascular diseases, so prevalent in the Western world during the twentieth century, could well become the scourge of the twenty-first century in emerging countries as well as the West. Endothelial dysfunction linked to an imbalance in the synthesis and/or release of contracting and relaxing factors is often evoked to explain the initiation of the cardiovascular pathology or its development and perpetuation. Two decades ago, when nitric oxide was demonstrated to mediate endothelium-dependent relaxations, the vascular world seemed convinced that nitric oxide was the ultimate and sole explanation for such relaxations. However not everyone agreed. EDHF: The Complete Story is the work of two leading researchers who did not accept that simple conclusion, but instead continued to search, along with others, for a deeper understanding of the ways in which endothelial cells communicate with the underlying smooth muscle to signal it to hyperpolarize. Now with most, if not all, of those ways, uncovered, the authors offer this summary as way of bringing closure to the quest. This monograph reports on the work of many researchers. It summarizes the significant recent discoveries concerning endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations, which are likely to play a much more important role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology than was originally foreseen Extensively illustrated with original diagrams and schematics that summarize the different steps of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, the text is designed for vascular biologists, and cardiologists, as well as graduate students looking to gain an understanding of the intimate functioning of the blood vessel wall.
Every few years a dissertation comes to the area of clinical application of medical technology which carries us forward as on a magic carpet into new regions of understanding and patient care. This book is such a magic carpet. It brings together, in a clear and incisive fashion, important hemodynamic principles with a simple noninvasive method of application to a part of the cerebral vasculature which has been relatively inaccessible. To the lucky and perceptive person who reads this book, a feeling of excitement and hope for progress is engendered. The diligent application of the potentials of transcranial Doppler ultrasound brings new power to our efforts in understanding the cerebral circulation and the causes, treatment and prevention of cerebrovascular disorders. Merrill P. Spencer, M. D. Director Institute of Applied Physiology and Medicine Seattle, Wash. , July 1986 Acknowledgements I am greatly indebted to Prof. He1ge Nornes, Oslo, who introduced me to the fascinating study of cerebral hemodynamics in the early 1970's and since then continually encouraged my interest in this field. It was through his pioneering work on the cerebral circulation-using peroperative electromagnetic flowmetry and Doppler techniques-that the basis was laid for the noninvasive trans cranial approach to the circle of Willis described in this book. I also gratefully acknowledge the stimulating case discussions with Prof. Peter Huber, Berne, at the very early introduction of trans cranial Doppler, the inspiring exchange of ideas with Dr. Merrill P.
Berne and Levy Physiology has long been respected for its scientifically rigorous approach and now includes major updates to bring you all of the latest knowledge in the field. Bruce M. Koeppen and Bruce A. Stanton present a honed and shortened edition that emphasizes the core information needed by students of physiology today and features a full-color design and artwork to enhance readability and enrich your comprehension of every concept. With access to the full contents online at Student Consult, this time-honored book delivers an in-depth understanding of physiology more powerfully and effectively than ever before. Describes all of the mechanisms that control and regulate bodily function using a clear and intuitive organ system-based approach. Provides a rich understanding of the body's dynamic processes through key experimental observations and examples. Includes Student Consult access to the complete and searchable contents of the book online, as well as relevant bonus content from other Student Consult titles, an image gallery, 10 physiology animations, and much more. Features updated coverage throughout to expand your understanding of the most current trends in physiology and medicine, including the latest cellular and molecular knowledge. Includes shaded boxes that highlight and explain important clinical and molecular information. Presents new section editors who ensure that you are getting the freshest, most clinically relevant information available today. Summarizes need-to-know information in each chapter with Key Points sections.
Optimize perioperative outcomes with Kaplan’s Cardiac Anesthesia! Dr. Joel L. Kaplan and a host of other authorities help you make the best use of the latest techniques and navigate your toughest clinical challenges. Whether you are administering anesthesia to cardiac surgery patients or to cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, you’ll have the guidance you need to avoid complications and ensure maximum patient safety. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Compatible with Kindle®, nook®, and other popular devices. Update your understanding of cardiovascular and coronary physiology, and the latest advances in molecular biology and inflammatory response mechanisms. Master the newest approaches to perioperative assessment and management, including state-of-the art diagnostic techniques. Tap into the latest knowledge about 2D and 3D transesophageal echocardiography, anesthesia delivery for minimally invasive/robotic cardiac surgery, assist devices and artificial hearts, cardiac pacing, cardiac resynchronization therapy, ablation techniques, and more. Access the complete contents online at Expert Consult, plus additional online-only features including an ECG atlas...videos that demonstrate 2-D and 3-D TEE techniques in real time...and an Annual Year End Highlight from the Journal of Cardiovascular Anesthesia that’s posted each February. Clearly visualize techniques with over 800 full-color illustrations.
This, the 148th volume of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology series, focuses on the very core of pharmacology, namely receptor theory. It is fitting that the originator of receptor pharmacology, A.J. CLARK, authored the fourth volume of this series 63 years ago. In that volume CLARK further developed his version of receptor theory first described four years earlier in his classic book The Mode of Action of Drugs. An examination of the topics covered in volume 4 reveals a striking similarity to the topics covered in this present volume; pharmacologists today are still as interested in unlocking the secrets of dose-response relationships to reveal the biological and cheƯ mical basis of drug action as they were over half a century ago. Sections in that 1937 volume such as "Curves relating exposure to drugs with biological effects" and "Implications of monomolecular theory" show Clark's keen insight into the essential questions that required answers to move pharmaƯ cology forward. With the advent of molecular biological cloning of human receptors has come a transformation of receptor pharmacology. Thus the expression of human receptors into surrogate host cells helped unlock secrets of receptor mechanisms and stimulus-transduction pathways. To a large extent, this elimƯ inates the leap of faith required to apply receptor activity of drugs tested on animal receptor systems to the human therapeutic arena. However, a new leap of faith concerning the veracity of the effects found in recombinant systems with respect to natural ones is now required.
As the number of drugs acting on calcium and potassium channels grows, there is a need for a continuous reappraisal of the cellular machinery controlling them. The present volume provides an update on the basic knowledge, the molecular targets of the two channels, and the importance the drugs that bind them have as pharmacological tools and therapeutic agents. This work was presented at the 6th International Symposium on PHARMACOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM HOMEOSTASIS: BIOLOGICAL, THERAPEUTICAL, AND CLINICAL ASPECTS, in Florence (Italy) on October 4-6, 1994. Because of the recent advances in the field, discussions on potassium channels were included for the first time. At least six classes of voltage-dependent calcium channels have been defined based on their physiological and pharmacological properties. Among them, L-type channels, mediating long lasting currents, are better characterized. Calcium homeostasis within the cell is not only regulated by calcium channels; intracellular calcium stores, in particular a pool contained in the lumen of specialized areas of the endoplasmic reticulum, are rapidly exchanged with the cytoplasm and playa key role in the control of calcium homeostasis. This area, however, has not yet been exploited from a therapeutic point of view. Potassium channels are present in virtually every cell type, excitable and nonexcitable, and are distinguished by structural, biophysical, and pharmacological criteria. Different classes including voltage-gated, ligand-gated, AP-sensitive, and G-protein coupled among others, have been defined by their primary regulatory and gating mechanisms.

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