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The history of American education is replete with educational reform, and to a lesser extent, educational dissent. Consider the present: you have various forms of privatization, school choice, the 'No Child Left Behind' act, home schooling, 'value-added' accountability, alternative teacher preparation programs, on-line instruction, etc. This range of activity is not exceptional. For instance, consider the past: progressive education, open education, the junior high school, the middle school, Life Adjustment education, career education, vocational education, the comprehensive high school, school-to-work, year-round schooling, behavioral objectives, proficiency exams (high-stakes testing), whole language, learning packages and self-paced instruction, modular scheduling, site-based management, all presented as the way to reform American schools, at least in part. Then you have the reformers themselves, such as John Dewey, George Counts, Herbert Kohl, John Holt, Charles Silberman, Admiral Hyman Rickover, James Bryant Conant, all the way back to Horace Mann himself. Dissenters, and dissenting movements, while not as numerous and certainly not as well known in educational circles, count the various faith-based schools and individuals such as Archbishop Hughes of New York.Clearly, this is an area rich in ideas, rife with controversy, and vital in its outcome for individuals and the nation as a whole. And yet, strangely enough, there exists no major encyclopedia bringing the varied strands together in one place as a ready reference for scholars, teachers, school administrators, and students studying to enter the educational profession. This two-volume work is intended to be that authoritative resource. Key themes and topics include: " biographies of reformers and dissenters " theoretical and ideological perspectives " key programs and legislation " judicial verdicts impacting educational change in America " the politics and processes of educational reform and policy making " dissent and resistance to reform " technology's impact on educational reform. A Reader's Guide in the front matter groups entries around such themes to help readers find related entries more easily.