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This book treats the central physical concepts and mathematical techniques used to investigate the dynamics of open quantum systems. To provide a self-contained presentation the text begins with a survey of classical probability theory and with an introduction into the foundations of quantummechanics with particular emphasis on its statistical interpretation. The fundamentals of density matrix theory, quantum Markov processes and dynamical semigroups are developed. The most important master equations used in quantum optics and in the theory of quantum Brownian motion are applied to thestudy of many examples. Special attention is paid to the theory of environment induced decoherence, its role in the dynamical description of the measurement process and to the experimental observation of decohering Schrodinger cat states. The book includes the modern formulation of open quantum systems in terms of stochastic processes in Hilbert space. Stochastic wave function methods and Monte Carlo algorithms are designed and applied to important examples from quantum optics and atomic physics, such as Levy statistics in the lasercooling of atoms, and the damped Jaynes-Cummings model. The basic features of the non-Markovian quantum behaviour of open systems are examined on the basis of projection operator techniques. In addition, the book expounds the relativistic theory of quantum measurements and discusses several examplesfrom a unified perspective, e.g. non-local measurements and quantum teleportation. Influence functional and super-operator techniques are employed to study the density matrix theory in quantum electrodynamics and applications to the destruction of quantum coherence are presented. The text addresses graduate students and lecturers in physics and applied mathematics, as well as researchers with interests in fundamental questions in quantum mechanics and its applications. Many analytical methods and computer simulation techniques are developed and illustrated with the help ofnumerous specific examples. Only a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and of elementary concepts of probability theory is assumed.
In this volume the fundamental theory of open quantum systems is revised in the light of modern developments in the field. A unified approach to the quantum evolution of open systems is presented by merging concepts and methods traditionally employed by different communities, such as quantum optics, condensed matter, chemical physics and mathematical physics. The mathematical structure and the general properties of the dynamical maps underlying open system dynamics are explained in detail. The microscopic derivation of dynamical equations, including both Markovian and non-Markovian evolutions, is also discussed. Because of the step-by-step explanations, this work is a useful reference to novices in this field. However, experienced researches can also benefit from the presentation of recent results.
Presents the developments and applications in the field of quantum open systems. This book discusses topics, such as the non-equilibrium properties of open quantum systems, the Fermi Golden Rule and weak coupling limit, quantum irreversibility and decoherence, qualitative behaviour of quantum Markov semigroups and continual quantum measurements.
This book discusses the elementary ideas and tools needed for open quantum systems in a comprehensive manner. The emphasis is given to both the traditional master equation as well as the functional (path) integral approaches. It discusses the basic paradigm of open systems, the harmonic oscillator and the two-level system in detail. The traditional topics of dissipation and tunneling, as well as the modern field of quantum information, find a prominent place in the book. Assuming a basic background of quantum and statistical mechanics, this book will help readers familiarize with the basic tools of open quantum systems. Open quantum systems is the study of quantum dynamics of the system of interest, taking into account the effects of the ambient environment. It is ubiquitous in the sense that any system could be envisaged to be surrounded by its environment which could naturally exert its influence on it. Open quantum systems allows for a systematic understanding of irreversible processes such as decoherence and dissipation, of the essence in order to have a correct understanding of realistic quantum dynamics and also for possible implementations. This would be essential for a possible development of quantum technologies.
Every part of physics offers examples of non-stability phenomena, but probably nowhere are they so plentiful and worthy of study as in the realm of quantum theory. The present volume is devoted to this problem: we shall be concerned with open quantum systems, i.e. those that cannot be regarded as isolated from the rest of the physical universe. It is a natural framework in which non-stationary processes can be investigated. There are two main approaches to the treatment of open systems in quantum theory. In both the system under consideration is viewed as part of a larger system, assumed to be isolated in a reasonable approximation. They are differentiated mainly by the way in which the state Hilbert space of the open system is related to that of the isolated system - either by orthogonal sum or by tensor product. Though often applicable simultaneously to the same physical situation, these approaches are complementary in a sense and are adapted to different purposes. Here we shall be concerned with the first approach, which is suitable primarily for a description of decay processes, absorption, etc. The second approach is used mostly for the treatment of various relaxation phenomena. It is comparably better examined at present; in particular, the reader may consult a monograph by E. B. Davies.

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