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This book is a comprehensive assessment of the various theoretical and numerical methods currently in use to investigate microstructural transformations and mechanical properties of inhomogeneous systems, from the atomic scale to the macroscopic: kinetic mean-field theories, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, Ginzburg-Landau and phase field methods as applied to plasticity and microstructure transformation, discrete and stochastic dislocation dynamics, and cluster dynamics. Extensive surveys of major physical processes include: solidification, microstructural evolution in single and polycrystalline systems under internal and applied stress, high temperature plasticity, recrystallization, large plastic strain in multiphase systems, fatigue, fracture, diffusive transformations, and fine grained materials.
This book addresses the need for a fundamental understanding of the physical origin, the mathematical behavior and the numerical treatment of models which include microstructure. Leading scientists present their efforts involving mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, computational mechanics, material modelling and experiment. The mathematical analyses are based on methods from the calculus of variations, while in the numerical implementation global optimization algorithms play a central role. The modeling covers all length scales, from the atomic structure up to macroscopic samples. The development of the models ware guided by experiments on single and polycrystals and results will be checked against experimental data.
Written by the leading experts in computational materials science, this handy reference concisely reviews the most important aspects of plasticity modeling: constitutive laws, phase transformations, texture methods, continuum approaches and damage mechanisms. As a result, it provides the knowledge needed to avoid failures in critical systems udner mechanical load. With its various application examples to micro- and macrostructure mechanics, this is an invaluable resource for mechanical engineers as well as for researchers wanting to improve on this method and extend its outreach.
Classical plasticity is a well established domain of mechanics and engineering, providing the basis for many engineering structural design, manufacturing processes and natural phenomena. New important characteristics are emerging in the interdisciplinary approach of micro-, meso- and macro-mechanics, and through analysis, experiments and computation. The interaction of mechanics and materials scientists is introducing tremendous changes in the two disciplines, so that the possibility of materials being processed on the microscale to achieve the desired macroscopic properties is rapidly approaching. A comprehensive overview on the latest developments in both macroplasticity and microplasticity theories, their interactions and applications in various engineering disciplines such as solid mechanics, structural analysis and geo-mechanics, materials science and technology, and metal forming and machining, is given in this volume. Case studies written by international experts focus on aspects such as the applications of plasticity in interdisciplinary and non-conventional areas. The 150 papers provide a current and useful reference source on the latest advances for both research workers and engineers in the various fields of plasticity.
A special survey of the extensive field of Constitutive Laws is given in 11 lectures, divided into three parts: Thermodynamics of Materials, Stochastic Processes and Material Behaviour, Constitutive Relations for Simple Fluids and Microphysics of Solids. The collection of lectures comprehends a novel survey of thermodynamical constitutive theories, and contributions to material theories with after-effects including experiments, stochastic constitutive laws, molecular dynamics for simulating material properties, electrodynamical constitutive properties, and thermodynamic and microphysical modelling of polymers. The selected lectures emphasize the microstructural aspect of constitutive laws, and this collection presents a new facet of constitutive laws.
The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.
State-of-the-technology tools for designing, optimizing, and manufacturing new materials Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) uses computational materials science tools within a holistic system in order to accelerate materials development, improve design optimization, and unify design and manufacturing. Increasingly, ICME is the preferred paradigm for design, development, and manufacturing of structural products. Written by one of the world's leading ICME experts, this text delivers a comprehensive, practical introduction to the field, guiding readers through multiscale materials processing modeling and simulation with easy-to-follow explanations and examples. Following an introductory chapter exploring the core concepts and the various disciplines that have contributed to the development of ICME, the text covers the following important topics with their associated length scale bridging methodologies: Macroscale continuum internal state variable plasticity and damage theory and multistage fatigue Mesoscale analysis: continuum theory methods with discrete features and methods Discrete dislocation dynamics simulations Atomistic modeling methods Electronics structures calculations Next, the author provides three chapters dedicated to detailed case studies, including "From Atoms to Autos: A Redesign of a Cadillac Control Arm," that show how the principles and methods of ICME work in practice. The final chapter examines the future of ICME, forecasting the development of new materials and engineering structures with the help of a cyberinfrastructure that has been recently established. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Metals is recommended for both students and professionals in engineering and materials science, providing them with new state-of-the-technology tools for selecting, designing, optimizing, and manufacturing new materials. Instructors who adopt this text for coursework can take advantage of PowerPoint lecture notes, a questions and solutions manual, and tutorials to guide students through the models and codes discussed in the text.
The latest state of simulation techniques to model plasticity and fracture in crystalline materials on the nano- and microscale is presented. Discrete dislocation mechanics and the neighbouring fields molecular dynamics and crystal plasticity are central parts. The physical phenomena, the theoretical basics, their mathematical description and the simulation techniques are introduced and important problems from the formation of dislocation structures to fatigue and fracture from the nano- to microscale as well as it’s impact on the macro behaviour are considered.
A profusion of research and results on the mechanical behaviour of crystalline solids has followed the discovery of dislocations in the early thirties. This trend has been enhanced by the development of powerful experimental techniques. particularly X ray diffraction. transmission and scanning electron microscopy. microanalysis. The technological advancement has given rise to the study of various and complex materials. not to speak of those recently invented. whose mechanical properties need to be mastered. either for their lise as structural materials. or more simply for detenllining their fonnability processes. As is often the case this fast growth has been diverted both by the burial of early fundamental results which are rediscovered more or less accurately. and by the too fast publication of inaccurate results. which propagate widely. and are accepted without criticism. Examples of these statements abound. and will not be quoted here for the sake of dispassionateness. Understanding the mechanical properties of materials implies the use of various experimental techniques. combined with a good theoretical knowledge of elasticity. thermodynamics and solid state physics. The recent development of various computer techniques (simulation. ab initio calculations) has added to the difficulty of gathering the experimental information. and mastering the theoretical understanding. No laboratory is equipped with all the possible experimental settings. almost no scientist masters all this theoretical kno\vledge. Therefore. cooperation between scientists is needed more than even before.
For decades to come, the limits to computing power will not allow atomistic simulations of macroscopic specimens. Simulations can only be performed on various scales (nano, meso, micro and macro) using the input provided by simulations (or data) on the next smaller scale. The resulting hierarchy has been the focus of many seminars and lectures. Necessarily, special emphasis has been placed on mesoscopic simulations, bridging the gaps between nano (atomic) and micro space and time scales. The contributors to Computer Simulation in Materials Science consider both fundamental problems and applications. Papers on the evolution of morphological patterns in phase transformations and plastic deformation, irradiation effects, mass transport and mechanical properties of materials in general highlight what has already been achieved. It is concluded that computer simulations must be based on realistic and efficient models: the fundamental equations controlling the dynamical evolution of microstructures, stochastic field kinetic models, being a case in point. The mesoscopic approach has proved particularly effective in plastic deformation and work hardening. On the mesoscopic scale, the contributions made to the deformation of polycrystals and localized plastic flow show the importance of computing power in ongoing and future research.
This book describes behavior of crystalline solids primarily via methods of modern continuum mechanics. Emphasis is given to geometrically nonlinear descriptions, i.e., finite deformations. Primary topics include anisotropic crystal elasticity, plasticity, and methods for representing effects of defects in the solid on the material's mechanical response. Defects include crystal dislocations, point defects, twins, voids or pores, and micro-cracks. Thermoelastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric behaviors are addressed. Traditional and higher-order gradient theories of mechanical behavior of crystalline solids are discussed. Differential-geometric representations of kinematics of finite deformations and lattice defect distributions are presented. Multi-scale modeling concepts are described in the context of elastic and plastic material behavior. Representative substances towards which modeling techniques may be applied are single- and poly- crystalline metals and alloys, ceramics, and minerals. This book is intended for use by scientists and engineers involved in advanced constitutive modeling of nonlinear mechanical behavior of solid crystalline materials. Knowledge of fundamentals of continuum mechanics and tensor calculus is a prerequisite for accessing much of the text. This book could be used as supplemental material for graduate courses on continuum mechanics, elasticity, plasticity, micromechanics, or dislocation mechanics, for students in various disciplines of engineering, materials science, applied mathematics, and condensed matter physics.
100 years after the first observation of ripening by Ostwald and 40 years after the first publication of a theory describing this process, this monograph presents in a self-consistent and comprehensive manner, all the bits and pieces of coarsening theories so that the main issues and the underlying mathematics of self-similar coarsening of dispersed systems can be understood. Rather than giving a complete survey of the field, it presents a careful derivation of the existing results and places them into some perspective.
Examines the advances made in the field in recent years and looks at the various methods now used; ideal for graduate students and researchers.
Computational Materials Engineering is an advanced introduction to the computer-aided modeling of essential material properties and behavior, including the physical, thermal and chemical parameters, as well as the mathematical tools used to perform simulations. Its emphasis will be on crystalline materials, which includes all metals. The basis of Computational Materials Engineering allows scientists and engineers to create virtual simulations of material behavior and properties, to better understand how a particular material works and performs and then use that knowledge to design improvements for particular material applications. The text displays knowledge of software designers, materials scientists and engineers, and those involved in materials applications like mechanical engineers, civil engineers, electrical engineers, and chemical engineers. Readers from students to practicing engineers to materials research scientists will find in this book a single source of the major elements that make up contemporary computer modeling of materials characteristics and behavior. The reader will gain an understanding of the underlying statistical and analytical tools that are the basis for modeling complex material interactions, including an understanding of computational thermodynamics and molecular kinetics; as well as various modeling systems. Finally, the book will offer the reader a variety of algorithms to use in solving typical modeling problems so that the theory presented herein can be put to real-world use. Balanced coverage of fundamentals of materials modeling, as well as more advanced aspects of modeling, such as modeling at all scales from the atomic to the molecular to the macro-material Concise, yet rigorous mathematical coverage of such analytical tools as the Potts type Monte Carlo method, cellular automata, phase field, dislocation dynamics and Finite Element Analysis in statistical and analytical modeling
This volume includes selected and peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Superplasticity in Advanced Materials (ICSAM 2018), August 19-22, 2018, St. Petersburg, Russia. We hope this collection will be interesting and useful for many specialists whose scientific and engineering activity is related to the area of superplastic materials, research of the mechanisms of superplasticity and superplastic processing technologies.
This book focuses on functional aspects of nanostructured materials that have a high relevance to immediate applications, such as catalysis, energy harvesting, energy storage, optical properties and surface functionalization via self-assembly. Additionally, there are chapters devoted to massive nanostructured materials and composites and covering basic properties and requirements of this new class of engineering materials. Especially the issues concerning stability, reliability and mechanical performance are mandatory aspects that need to be regarded carefully for any nanostructured engineering material.
This book is a systematic guide to the recognition and interpretation of deformation microstructures and mechanisms in minerals and rocks at the scale of a thin section. Diagnostic features of microstructures and mechanisms are emphasized, and the subject is extensively illustrated with high-quality color and black and white photomicrographs, and many clear diagrams. After introducing three main classes of deformation microstructures and mechanisms, low- to high-grade deformation is presented in a logical sequence in Chapters 2 to 5. Magmatic/submagmatic deformation, shear sense indicators, and shock microstructures and metamorphism are described in Chapters 6 to 8, which are innovative chapters in a structural geology textbook. The final chapter shows how deformation microstructures and mechanisms can be used quantitatively to understand the behavior of the earth. Recent experimental research on failure criteria, frictional sliding laws, and flow laws is summarized in tables, and palaeopiezometry is discussed. Audience: This book is essential to all practising structural and tectonic geologists who use thin sections, and is an invaluable research tool for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, lecturers and researchers in structural geology and tectonics.
Elasticity, plasticity, damage mechanics and cracking are all phenomena that determine the resistance of solids to deformation and fracture. The authors of this book discuss a modern method of mathematically modeling the behavior of macroscopic volume elements. The first three chapters review physical mechanisms at the microstructural level, thermodynamics of irreversible processes, mechanics of continuous media, and the classification of the behavior of solids. The rest of the book is devoted to the modeling of different types of material behavior. In each case the authors present characteristic data for numerous materials, and discuss the physics underlying the phenomena together with methods for the numerical analysis of the resulting equations.
Complex metal alloys (CMAs) comprise a huge group of largely unknown alloys and compounds, where many phases are formed with crystal structures based on giant unit cells containing atom clusters, ranging from tens of to more than thousand atoms per unit cell. In these phases, for many phenomena, the physical length scales are substantially smaller than the unit-cell dimension. Hence, these materials offer unique combinations of properties which are mutually exclusive in conventional materials, such as metallic electric conductivity combined with low thermal conductivity, good light absorption with high-temperature stability, high metallic hardness with reduced wetting by liquids, etc.This book is the first of a series of books issued yearly as a deliverable to the European Community of the School established within the European Network of Excellence CMA. Written by reputed experts in the fields of metal physics, surface physics, surface chemistry, metallurgy, and process engineering, this book brings together expertise found inside as well as outside the network to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge in CMAs.

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