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Dictionary of South American Trees provides a single-source reference for botanists, biologists, ecologists, and climatologists on the many native trees in South America. The index lets readers find a tree in four languages, by its common name, or abbreviation, followed by taxonomy that includes common uses for each part of the tree. Using this information, scientists and students can identify and classify plants, their growth structure and environment, the uses of their products, and alternative options with similar characteristics. Complete coverage of all native South American trees—the only single-source reference for botanists, biologists, ecologists and climatologists working in this diverse and changing region Includes taxonomy at genera, species, sub-species, and varietal levels, providing information from the most basic level up and allowing readers to identify their subjects using numerous criteria Indicates Latin, English, French, and Spanish names as well as common names and abbreviations, facilitating accurate and efficient identification Provides growth information, climatology, ecology and uses for the tree to provide insight into each tree as well as for comparative purposes when seeking similar tree-based resources
Whether you are just about to embark on your scenic modelling journey, or want to re-work an existing layout, this clearly written volume will be invaluable. The author guides you through the process of collecting field-trip information, both written and photographic, and then demonstrates, using step-by-step instructions, how the colours, textures and features depicted in the reference photographs can be replicated to create a wonderful model landscape. The author describes in detail the modelling techniques he employs to create long and short grass, crop, fallow and freshly ploughed fields, trimmed hedges, mature hedgerows, hedgerow trees, broadland trees in summer, Scots pine trees, silver birch, autumn and winter trees, as well as dead and fallen trees and trees in half relief. Finally, he brings together all the features that have been covered in the book and describes the building of a scale model representation of the field trip photographs in the form of a 3 x 2 ft diorama. Aimed at all those railway modellers who wish to create attractive, realistic scenery for their layouts, brimming with advice and tips and with over four hundred inspirational reference colour images and colour instructional photographs. A sister volume to Modelling Railway Scenery Volume 1 - Cuttings, Hills, Mountains, Streams and Lakes (Crowood 2013).
This work, published in two volumes, contains descriptions of the wood and bark anatomies of 3000 dicotyledonous plants of 120 families, highlighting the anatomical and phylogenetic diversity of dicotyledonous plants of the Northern Hemisphere. The first volume principally treats families of the Early Angiosperms, Eudicots, Core Eudicots and Rosids, while the second concentrates on the Asterids. Presented in Volume 2 are microsections of the xylem and phloem of herbs, shrubs and trees of 1000 species and ca. 35 families of various life forms of the temperate zone along altitudinal gradients from the lowland at the Mediterranean coast to the alpine zone in Western Europe. Special attention is given to the very diverse family of Asteraceae. The global perspective of the findings is underlined by the analysis of 400 species from the Caucasus, the Rocky Mountains and Andes, the subtropical zone on the Canary Islands, the arid zones in the Sahara, in Eurasia, Arabia and Southwest North America, New Zealand and the boreal and arctic zones in Eurasia and Canada. The presence of annual rings in all life forms demonstrates that herbs and dwarf shrubs are an excellent tool for the reconstruction of annual biomass production and the interannual dynamic of plant associations. The common principle of the anatomical expression of secondary growth is a key factor in understanding evolution and adaptation processes in all life forms, from the 3 cm tall crepide pigmea (Crepis pygmaea) in the alpine zone to the 40 m tall ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Central European riparian forests. The study opens vast fields of research for dendrochronology, wood anatomy, taxonomy and ecology.

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