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The bright colour of haemoglobin has, from the very beginning, played a significant role in both the investigation of this compound as well as in the study of blood oxygen transport. Numerous optical methods have been developed for measuring haemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, and the principal dyshaemoglobins in vitro as well as in vivo. Modern applications include pulse oximeters, fibre optic oximeters, multiwavelength haemoglobin photometers ('co-oximeters') and instruments for near infrared spectroscopy in vivo. Knowledge of the light absorption spectra of the common haemoglobin derivatives is a prerequisite for the development and understanding of these techniques. In the 1960s a reference method based on the absorptivity of a single derivative (haemiglobincyanide; HiCN) at a single wavelength (540 nm) was established for measuring the total haemoglobin concentration. Thus an anchor value was provided on which the absorptivity spectra of all other haemoglobin derivatives could be based. This monograph presents absorption spectra and absorptivity data in the wavelength range of 480 to 1000 nm of the major haemoglobin derivatives for human adult and foetal haemoglobin and for haemoglobin of several animals (cow, dog, horse, pig, rat, and adult and foetal sheep). A detailed description of the methods used to acquire these data has been included to allow future investigators to reproduce and expand on the data. The second part of the monograph includes chapters on the principles and development, in historical perspective, of the principal methods for measuring total haemoglobin concentration for two, three, and multi-component analysis of haemoglobin derivatives, and for blood oxygen saturation measurement. Accurate quantitative data pertaining to haemoglobin in human blood are presented, together with a description of methods for measuring haemoglobin oxygen capacity and oxygen affinity. These chapters have been written with a view to foster knowledge and insight concerning the principles, purposes, and limitations of the various methods of all who use these methods in research and patient care.
An authoritative guide to theory and applications of heat transfer in humans Theory and Applications of Heat Transfer in Humans 2V Set offers a reference to the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. The author—a noted expert in the field—presents, in this book, the fundamental physics and physiology related to the field, along with some of the recent applications, all in one place, in such a way as to enable and enrich both beginner and advanced readers. The book provides a basic framework that can be used to obtain ‘decent’ estimates of tissue temperatures for various applications involving tissue heating and/or cooling, and also presents ways to further develop more complex methods, if needed, to obtain more accurate results. The book is arranged in three sections: The first section, named ‘Physics’, presents fundamental mathematical frameworks that can be used as is or combined together forming more complex tools to determine tissue temperatures; the second section, named ‘Physiology’, presents ideas and data that provide the basis for the physiological assumptions needed to develop successful mathematical tools; and finally, the third section, named ‘Applications’, presents examples of how the marriage of the first two sections are used to solve problems of today and tomorrow. This important text is the vital resource that: Offers a reference book in the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. Provides a comprehensive theoretical and experimental basis with biomedical applications Shows how to develop and implement both, simple and complex mathematical models to predict tissue temperatures Includes simple examples and results so readers can use those results directly or adapt them for their applications Designed for students, engineers, and other professionals, a comprehensive text to the field of heating and cooling of tissue that includes proven theories with applications. The author reveals how to develop simple and complex mathematical models, to predict tissue heating and/or cooling, and associated damage.
The second edition maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes (1) light propagation and diagnostic application; (2) the thermal response of tissue and therapeutic application; (3) denaturation; and (4) ablation. The theory and applications provide researchers with sufficient detail that this volume will become the primary reference for laser-tissue interactions and medical applications.
Despite a number of books on biophotonics imaging for medical diagnostics and therapy, the field still lacks a comprehensive imaging book that describes state-of-the-art biophotonics imaging approaches intensively developed in recent years. Addressing this shortfall, Advanced Biophotonics: Tissue Optical Sectioning presents contemporary methods and applications of biophotonics imaging. Gathering research otherwise scattered in numerous physical, chemical, biophysical, and biomedical journals, the book helps researchers, bioengineers, and medical doctors understand major recent bioimaging technologies and the underlying biophotonics science. Well-known international experts explore a variety of "hot" biomedical optics and biophotonics problems, including the use of photoacoustic imaging to investigate the molecular and cellular processes in living systems. The book also covers Monte Carlo modeling, tissue optics and tissue optical clearing, nonlinear optical microscopy, various aspects of optical coherence tomography, multimodal tomography, adaptive optics, and signal imaging. With 58 color images, this book represents a valuable contribution to the biomedical and biophotonics literature. Designed for researchers and practitioners in biophotonics, the book is also a useful resource for scientists in laser physics and technology, fiber optics, spectroscopy, materials science, biology, and medicine as well as students studying biomedical physics and engineering, biomedical optics, and biophotonics.
Applied physics is rooted in the fundamental truths and basic concepts of the physical sciences but is concerned with the utilisation of these scientific principles in practical devices and systems. This book gathers the latest research from around the globe in this dynamic field.

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