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The idea for putting together a tutorial on zeolites came originally from my co-editor, Eric Derouane, about 5 years ago. I ?rst met Eric in the mid-1980s when he spent 2 years working for Mobil R&D at our then Corporate lab at Princeton, NJ. He was on the senior technical staff with projects in the synthesis and characterization of new materials. At that time, I managed a group at our Paulsboro lab that was responsible for catalyst characterization in support of our catalyst and process development efforts, and also had a substantial group working on new material synthesis. Hence, our interests overlapped considerably and we met regularly. After Eric moved back to Namur (initially), we maintained contact, and in the 1990s, we met a number of times in Europe on projects of joint interest. It was after I retired from ExxonMobil in 2002 that we began to discuss the tutorial concept seriously. Eric had (semi-)retired and lived on the Algarve, the southern coast of Portugal. In January 2003, my wife and I spent 3 weeks outside of Lagos, and I worked parts of most days with Eric on the proposed content of the book. We decided on a comprehensive approach that ultimately amounted to some 20+ chapters covering all of zeolite chemistry and catalysis and gave it the title Zeolite Chemistry and Catalysis: An integrated Approach and Tutorial.
This indispensable two-volume handbook covers everything on this hot research field. The first part deals with the synthesis, modification, characterization and application of catalytic active zeolites, while the second focuses on such reaction types as cracking, hydrocracking, isomerization, reforming and other industrially important topics. Edited by a highly experienced and internationally renowned team with chapters written by the "Who's Who" of zeolite research.
Catalysis and catalyst is a key technology to solve the problems in energy and environment issues to sustain our human society. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the catalysis and catalyst provides us a chance to develop a new catalyst and contributes greatly to our society. However, the ?eld of heterogeneous catalyst is dif?cultto study andstill stays behindmoredeveloped?elds ofchemistry such as organic and physical chemistries. This is a dilemma to the chemists who study the catalysis and catalyst. While we can accomplish the progress in the - dustrial application, the scienti?c understandingis not complete yet. A gap between the useful application and incomplete scienti?c understanding, however, becomes smaller and smaller in recent years. Because zeolites are ?ne crystals, and the structure is clearly known, the study on the catalysis using the zeolites is easier than those encountered in other catalysts such as metals and metal oxides. Very fortunately, zeolites provide us the strong acidity with the ?ne distribution which enables various useful catalytic reactions. When some metals and cations are loaded in close to the acid sites, these loadede- ments show extraordinarycharacters, and many catalytic reactions proceed thereon.
These proceedings reflect recent developments in the field of zeolite chemistry and catalysis with an emphasis on the role of a modifying component on the properties of the molecular sieve material. The plenary lectures and contributed papers concentrate on the problem of isomorphous substitution in a zeolitic framework; on the occlusion and the structure of metal, metal oxide, and metal sulphide clusters and complexes in the intracrystalline void volume of molecular sieves and zeolites as well as in the interlaminar space of layered compounds. Catalytic applications are discussed, not only in regard to traditional hydrocarbon transformation, but also in such areas as: reduction of SO2, decomposition of NO, reactions of sulphur containing compounds and conversion of CO, CO2 to hydrocarbons or of alcohols to oxygenated products. Because the book provides valuable data and information on new achievements in the zeolite material science and application, it will be of considerable interest to all research groups involved in zeolite science.
This book is devoted to the new development of zeolitic catalysts with an emphasis on new strategies for the preparation of zeolites, novel techniques for their characterization and emerging applications of zeolites as catalysts for sustainable chemistry, especially in the fields of energy, biomass conversion and environmental protection. Over the years, energy and the environment have become the most important global issues, while zeolitic catalysts play important roles in addressing them. With individual chapters written by leading experts, this book offers an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in both academia and industry. Feng-Shou Xiao is a Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China. Xiangju Meng is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China.
This first book to offer a practical overview of zeolites and their commercial applications provides a practical examination of zeolites in three capacities. Edited by a globally recognized and acclaimed leader in the field with contributions from major industry experts, this handbook and ready reference introduces such novel separators as zeolite membranes and mixed matrix membranes. The first part of the book discusses the history and chemistry of zeolites, while the second section focuses on separation processes. The third and final section treats zeolites in the field of catalysis. The three sections are unified by an examination of how the unique properties of zeolites allow them to function in different capacities as an adsorbent, a membrane and as a catalyst, while also discussing their impact within the industry.
Zeolites occur in nature and have been known for almost 250 years as alumino silicate minerals. Examples are clinoptilolite, mordenite, offretite, ferrierite, erionite and chabazite. Today, most of these and many other zeolites are of great interest in heterogeneous catalysis, yet their naturally occurring forms are of limited value as catalysts because nature has not optimized their properties for catalytic applications and the naturally occurring zeolites almost always contain undesired impurity phases. It was only with the advent of synthetic zeolites in the period from about 1948 to 1959 (thanks to the pioneering work of R. M. Barrer and R. M. Milton) that this class of porous materials began to playa role in catalysis. A landmark event was the introduction of synthetic faujasites (zeolite X at first, zeolite Y slightly later) as catalysts in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of heavy petroleum distillates in 1962, one of the most important chemical processes with a worldwide capacity of the order of 500 million t/a. Compared to the previously used amorphous silica-alumina catalysts, the zeolites were not only orders of magnitude more active, which enabled drastic process engineering improvements to be made, but they also brought about a significant increase in the yield of the target product, viz. motor gasoline. With the huge FCC capacity worldwide, the added value of this yield enhancement is of the order of 10 billion US $ per year.
ZEOCAT '95 is the eleventh in the series of symposia devoted to special fields of zeolite chemistry. Six plenary lectures, forty oral and forty-two poster presentations were included in the program. The accepted papers cover every aspect of catalysis on microporous materials. A significant number of the contributions describe the synthesis, modification, instrumental and chemical characterisation of zeolites and other micro- and mesoporous materials. Catalytic reactions involve hydrocarbon cracking, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, methanol to hydrocarbon conversion, hydration of acetylene, various alkylation reactions, redox transformations, Claisen rearrangement, etc.
Zeolites and Zeolite-like Materials offers a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the important areas of zeolite synthesis, characterization, and applications. Its chapters are written in an educational, easy-to-understand format for a generation of young zeolite chemists, especially those who are just starting research on the topic and need a reference that not only reflects the current state of zeolite research, but also identifies gaps and opportunities. The book demonstrates various applications of zeolites in heterogeneous catalysis and biomass conversion and identifies the endless possibilities that exist for this class of materials, their structures, functions, and future applications. In addition, it demonstrates that zeolite-like materials should be regarded as a living body developing towards new modern applications, thereby responding to the needs of modern technology challenges, including biomass conversion, medicine, laser techniques, and nanomaterial design, etc. The book will be of interest not only to zeolite-focused researchers, but also to a broad scientific and non-scientific audience. Provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to zeolites and zeolite-like materials since 2000 Covers the chemistry of novel zeolite-like materials such as Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs), hierarchical zeolite materials, new mesoporous and composite zeolite-like micro/mesoporous materials Presents essential information of the new zeolite-like structures, with a balanced coverage of the most important areas of the zeolite research (synthesis, characterization, adsorption, catalysis, new applications of zeolites and zeolite-like materials) Contains chapters prepared by known specialists who are members of the International Zeolite Association
Catalysis by Zeolites: International Symposium Proceedings (Studies in surface science and catalysis)
Authored by a top-level team of both academic and industrial researchers in the field, this is an up-to-date review of mesoporous zeolites. The leading experts cover novel preparation methods that allow for a purpose-oriented fine-tuning of zeolite properties, as well as the related materials, discussing the specific characterization methods and the applications in close relation to each individual preparation approach. The result is a self-contained treatment of the different classes of mesoporous zeolites. With its academic insights and practical relevance this is a comprehensive handbook for researchers in the field and related areas, as well as for developers from the chemical industry.
Presented in an easy-to-read form, this book on zeolite catalysis cover all aspects of the subject. It focuses on synthesis, structure, diffusion, deactivation, and industrial applications. This book is an ideal text for courses on catalysis or as a supplementary text for those studying applied or industrial chemistry. It is also a useful resource for anyone who works with zeolites as catalysts in the laboratory, pilot plants, or commercial installations.
In view of the substantial progress made in the last decade in the fields of zeolites and related materials it was decided to go for an extended 2nd Edition of "Introduction to Zeolite Science and Practice". Unfortunately - as often is the case - this process took more time than expected by the Editors. In the mean time some new texts on zeolites were issued. Nevertheless, the combination of data, discussion and dedication provided by the present book is a unique coverage of the field, in the opinion of the Editors. In the present Edition the number of chapters rose from 16-22. The contributions can be divided into three categories: updated chapters by the original authors, updated chapters by an expanded or new team of authors and completely new chapters. This 2nd Edition also contains new chapters on "Zeolite-based supramolecular assemblies" (by Dirk De Vos and Pierre Jacobs, experts in this area) and on "The use of bulky probe molecules" (by Paul Kunkeler, Roger Downing and one of the Editors). Finally, the super large pore zeolites and the fast growing area of ordered mesoporous materials are dealt with by Eelco Vogt, Charlie Kresge and and Jim Vartuli. The latter two authors belong to the discoverers of the M41S family of mesoporous materials.
In chemical processes, the progressive deactivation of solid catalysts is a major economic concern and mastering their stability has become as essential as controlling their activity and selectivity. For these reasons, there is a strong motivation to understand the mechanisms leading to any loss in activity and/or selectivity and to find out the efficient preventive measures and regenerative solutions that open the way towards cheaper and cleaner processes. This book covers in a comprehensive way both the fundamental and applied aspects of solid catalyst deactivation and encompasses the state-of-the-art in the field of reactions catalyzed by zeolites. This particular choice is justified by the widespread use of molecular sieves in refining, petrochemicals and organic chemicals synthesis processes, by the large variety in the nature of their active sites (acid, base, acid-base, redox, bifunctional) and especially by their peculiar features, in terms of crystallinity, structural order and textural properties, which make them ideal models for heterogeneous catalysis. The aim of this book is to be a critical review in the field of zeolite deactivation and regeneration, by collecting a series of contributions by experts in the field which describe the factors, explain the techniques to study the causes and suggest methods to prevent (or limit) catalyst deactivation. At the same time, an anthology of commercial processes and exemplar cases provides the reader with theoretical insights and practical hints on the deactivation mechanisms and draws attention to the key role played by the loss of activity on process design and industrial practice.
Zeolites and related microporous materials are used in oil processing and in the fine and petrochemical industries on a large scale. New applications of zeolites contribute to environmentally friendly processes and refined zeolites such as catalytic zeolite membranes and zeolites containing exhaust-pipe reactors are being introduced. Recent diversity in zeolite research has been fueled by the increase in number of microporous materials and the combination with interfacing science areas. The possibility to accommodate ions, large molecules or nanostructures in the crystalline matrix has been explored and the performance of electronic, acoustic and photonic modified response of the materials has been tested. This volume provides up-to-date information on new zeolite and related materials and composites, their applications, testing of new processes and techniques, and promising laboratory results as well. A vast amount of work from a fundamental aspect is incorporated. In particular, the combination of science and application offers useful information for readers interested in molecular sieves.
The Handbook of Zeolite Science and Technology offers effective analyses ofsalient cases selected expressly for their relevance to current and prospective research. Presenting the principal theoretical and experimental underpinnings of zeolites, this international effort is at once complete and forward-looking, combining fundamental
Foreword During the recent years a large number of fascinating books appeared covering the ever growing area of zeolites, zeotypes and mesoporous molecular sieves even including the emerging field of metal organic frameworks. In contrast, we decided to prepare this book focused exclusively on zeolites and zeotypes, defined as crystalline microporous materials, to show that they are still one of the most important groups of inorganic materials serving as very well defined model structures for detail kinetic and spectroscopic studies up to industrially applied catalysts for cracking, refineries, petrochemistry, synthesis of fine chemicals, and in environmental catalysis. Based on that we believe that this book on zeolites will be useful not only for students and newcomers to this field but also to all experienced researchers as a useful reference book. Preparing this book we tried to follow up the pathway starting from synthesis of zeolites and understanding of new advances in this area up to their applications in adsorption and zeolites. Authors both from academic institutions very active in this area as well as leading experts from industry were invited to prepare their contributions. While in the Introduction the editors tried to briefly outline some basic summary of the last 250 years since the description of the first natural zeolite by Swedish mineralogist Cronsted, W.J. Roth focused on the discussion of recently synthesized zeolites and zeotypes and the exploitation of the structure directing concepts for the successful synthesis of these novel structural types of zeolites. This is continued by R. Lobo, who made a great effort to evaluate the most important factors controlling the synthesis of zeolites from the point of view of the mechanism of zeolite synthesis. Many organic cations play important role in the synthesis of zeolites and J. Perez-Pariente focused his attention on their role as structure- directing agents, without which the synthesis would not proceed. In recent years synthesis of nanozeolites with particle sizes in tens of nanometers step forward. This topic is nicely covered by S. Mintova and V. Valtchev showing important factors for their synthesis together with discussing possibilities of their investigation. This is followed by the chapter of S.E. Park centered on the application of microwave irradiation to shorten the synthesis time of zeolites and to control selectivity and morphology during the synthesis. Zeolite membranes for separations and catalysis present another important area of zeolite endeavor. J. Santamaria and coworkers nicely described recent achievements in this area. Final chapter devoted to the synthesis of zeolites was written by industrial experts led by Lam. The authors focused on the critical issues of scaling up of the zeolite synthesis, which provides more detailed ideas of the critical aspects of this effort. Acidity is one of the most important features of zeolites playing the crucial role in acid-catalyzed reactions. B. Gil presented various approaches to characterization of the acidity of zeolites and discussed advantages and disadvantages of individual relevant methods. From the practical point of view main part of the book is devoted to catalysis. Chapter by R. Staudt and M. Thommes preceded these chapters describing a broad application potential of zeolites for adsorption applications. As for the catalysis, A. Martinez focused on application of zeolites in petrochemical reactions and M. Bejblová and J. Cejka highlighted many examples of catalytic potential of zeolites in fine chemical synthesis. For the first time a topic of zeolite catalysis for renewables was covered by H. van Bekkum while Z. Sobalik discussed the application of zeolites in environmental catalysis with special emphasis on deNOx processes. Industrial applications of zeolites were summarized by C. Perego and A. Carati showing many examples of the importance of zeolites in this field. Finally, C. Christensen and his group presented an emerging field of controlled synthesis of mesoporous zeolites and their catalytic potential. It was our great pleasure to work with many friends and top researchers on the preparation of this book. We would like to sincerely thank all of them for their timely reviews on selected topics and particular effort to put the book together. Last but not least we appreciate the kind invitation from the Transworld Research Network publishing house to edit this book.
Solid-State NMR Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Catalytic Reactions provides a comprehensive account of state-of-the-art solid-state NMR techniques and the application of these techniques in heterogeneous catalysts and related catalytic reactions. It includes an introduction to the basic theory of solid-state NMR and various frequently used techniques. Special emphasis is placed on characterizing the framework and pore structure, active site, guest-host interaction, and synthesis mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysts using multinuclear one- and two-dimensional solid-sate NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, various in-situ solid-state NMR techniques and their applications in investigation of the mechanism of industrially important catalytic reactions are also discussed. Both the fundamentals and the latest research results are covered, making the book suitable as a reference guide for both experienced researchers in and newcomers to this field. Feng Deng is a Professor at Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Intensive research on zeolites, during the past thirty years, has resulted in a deep understanding of their chemistry and in a true zeolite science, including synthesis, structure, chemical and physical properties, and catalysis. These studies are the basis for the development and growth of several industrial processes applying zeolites for selective sorption, separation, and catalysis. In 1983, a NATO Advanced Study Institute was organized in Alcabideche (portugal) to establish the State-of-the-Art in Zeolite Science and Technology and to contribute to a better understanding of the structural properties of zeolites, the configurational constraints they may exert, and their effects in adsorption, diffusion, and catalysis. Since then, zeolite science has witnessed an almost exponential growth in published papers and patents, dealing with both fundamentals issues and original applications. The proposal of new procedures for zeolite synthesis, the development of novel and sophisticated physical techniques for zeolite characterization, the discovery of new zeolitic and related microporous materials, progresses in quantum chemistry and molecular modeling of zeolites, and the application of zeolites as catalysts for organic reactions have prompted increasing interest among the scientific community. An important and harmonious interaction between various domains of Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering resulted therefrom.
This volume looks at the recent progress of this technology as reported in the 21 papers presented during the 219th National Meeting of the ACS in New York, September 5-11, 2003. In addition, the volume focuses on the use of modern spectroscopic techniques for the generation of detailed structural analysis required for the advancement of the science of FCC design. Other chapters look at the use and importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), microcalorimetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the study of FCCs and discussing strategies to control pollutant emissions from a refinery FCCU and looking at advances in FCC preparation.

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